In general, the determination of these herbicides in fish involves extraction of the analytes, removal of co-extracted lipids, concentration and chromatographic analysis. The most crucial steps are the extraction of target analytes from the bulk of the matrix and clean-up of the analytes from the matrix co-extractives. To date several extraction techniques have been applied such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-liquid extraction (SLE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE).
Another extraction method of interest is solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques which is capable of extracting the polar compounds like the imidazolinone herbicide. SPE technique have been proven successful to determine imazapyr, imazathapyr, imazaquin, imazamox in water and soil media only. However, to our knowledge, no extraction method has been fully developed...
... middle of paper ...
...erbicides. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/caddis/ssr_herb_int.html
Ulbrich, A. V., J. R. P. Souza, et al. (2009). "Persistence and Carryover Effect of Imazapic and Imazapyr in Brazilian Cropping Systems1."
Wang, D., Yu, W., et al. (2013). “ Organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake, China, and associated human health risk assessment.” .” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 98: 383-389
Wu, C-X., Wang, J-J., et al. (2011). “Adsorption and Desorption of Methiopyrsulfuron in Soils.” Pedosphere 21(3):380-388
Wu, C., Zhang, S., et al. (2011). “Adsorption and desorption herbicide monosulfuron-ester in Chinese soils.” Journal of Environmental Sciences 23(9): 1524-1532
Yania, D., and Elsharkawy, E. E. (2014). “Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt.” Science of the Total Environment 466-467: 306-314
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