The Use of Imidazolinone Herbicides in Rice Fields Essay

The Use of Imidazolinone Herbicides in Rice Fields Essay

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Imidazolinone herbicides are extensively used in recent years to control the growth of weeds in rice field area and improve its productivity. The herbicide used in the rice field is the combination of imazapyr (17.5%) and imazapic (52.5%) from the imidazolinone family plus inert ingredient (30%). Its persistence in soil media may pose severe ecological and human impacts through drifting or leaching. Since dietary intake is the main route for human exposure, fish can be the main contributor to the herbicide intake in human beings. Several studies have demonstrated a clear correlation between the frequency of fish consumption and the level of contaminant in human tissues, serum and milk.

In general, the determination of these herbicides in fish involves extraction of the analytes, removal of co-extracted lipids, concentration and chromatographic analysis. The most crucial steps are the extraction of target analytes from the bulk of the matrix and clean-up of the analytes from the matrix co-extractives. To date several extraction techniques have been applied such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-liquid extraction (SLE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE).

Another extraction method of interest is solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques which is capable of extracting the polar compounds like the imidazolinone herbicide. SPE technique have been proven successful to determine imazapyr, imazathapyr, imazaquin, imazamox in water and soil media only. However, to our knowledge, no extraction method has been fully developed...

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...erbicides. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from
Ulbrich, A. V., J. R. P. Souza, et al. (2009). "Persistence and Carryover Effect of Imazapic and Imazapyr in Brazilian Cropping Systems1."
Wang, D., Yu, W., et al. (2013). “ Organochlorine pesticides in fish from Taihu Lake, China, and associated human health risk assessment.” .” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 98: 383-389
Wu, C-X., Wang, J-J., et al. (2011). “Adsorption and Desorption of Methiopyrsulfuron in Soils.” Pedosphere 21(3):380-388
Wu, C., Zhang, S., et al. (2011). “Adsorption and desorption herbicide monosulfuron-ester in Chinese soils.” Journal of Environmental Sciences 23(9): 1524-1532
Yania, D., and Elsharkawy, E. E. (2014). “Multi pesticide and PCB residues in Nile tilapia and catfish in Assiut city, Egypt.” Science of the Total Environment 466-467: 306-314

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