For thousands of years, alcoholic beverages have been produced by the fermentation of yeasts, sugars and starches to form an alcohol called ethyl alcohol or ethanol. It is the intoxicating agent found in beer, wine and liquor. After you drink an alcoholic beverage it absorbs into your bloodstream. Once alcohol enters your bloodstream it remains there until the body processes it. The liver is the main place where this occurs. An enzyme in your liver cells known as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) breaks down alcohol through a type of reaction called a dehydrogenation reaction (Alcohol Metabolism). In this experiment, ADH uses Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor to break down alcohol into acetaldehyde, NADH and a single proton. ADH, like all enzymes, is sensitive to its surrounding. It has an optimum pH and temperature at which it is the most efficient. To determine this optimum pH and temperature we performed photometric assay. Photometry classifies light based on wavelength. Light with a wavelength of below 400nm can be classified as ultraviolet. Assay is analysis to determine composition. Photometric assay is an analysis tool that uses a spectrophotom...
... middle of paper ...
...etermine enzyme specificity and factors controlling rate. We looked at how choosing the right substrate to begin with influences reaction rate. This phenomena can be explained by the right key fitting a lock or finding the perfect piece to the puzzle. The substrate that was chosen to conduct the rest of the experiment was ethanol, a substrate with a two carbon chain. The binding of ADH with ethanol created an enzyme-substrate complex that formed the product acetaldehyde, NADH and a proton. From the experiment, I was able to determine the optimum temperature to be 37C and the optimum pH to be 8.5. In conclusion, I learned that ADH is an enzyme in the body that helps break down ethanol. I also learned that there are specific conditions that the enzyme must be in to perform efficiently. It was determined that temperature and pH play an important role in enzyme activity.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- There is antecedent evidence through an assorted number of psychological studies that show proof for and against a genetic basis of drug use. The synopsis discussed here will delve into the drug alcohol specifically and focus on the positive relationship towards genetics being the predominant force behind alcohol abuse. While there is compelling empirical information available for someone to favor one position over another, there have been disparities found between human and animal studies which will be explored here within.... [tags: Genetics, Gene, Alcoholism, DNA]
1456 words (4.2 pages)
- One of the growing epidemics of young adults in the United States is the dependence and/or abuse of alcohol, which is commonly referred to as alcoholism. The condition is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V, as an alcohol use disorder (AUD), a type of substance abuse disorder, which encompasses both alcohol abuse and dependence. More specifically AUD is defined as, “medical conditions that doctors can diagnose when a patient’s drinking causes distress or harm (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2007).” When the reliance or use of alcohol interferes with daily functioning, or causes greater harm to the one’s self, it can then be looked at... [tags: Alcohol Use Disorder Essays]
2532 words (7.2 pages)
- Purpose The purpose of this exercise was to discover how students perceive the use of alcohol, focusing on the differences between their countries of origin and Scotland. The particular theme was selected, because since I moved in Edinburgh, I noticed that alcohol consumption is one of the usual subjects of discussion among international students. I observed that this is an issue, which troubles many non-UK students. More specifically, every time I was in the company of young people from different countries, we used to discuss about the differences we notice regarding the way that Scottish people entertain themselves, the important role that alcohol holds in their lives and what differences... [tags: Alcohol Use by Scottish Students]
3280 words (9.4 pages)
- This lecture deals with alcohol use (and abuse) among adolescents. Alcohol is an extremely important issue for teenagers. There have been many moments in my life during which I have been offered some form of alcohol, but turned it down. In order to avoid being exposed to alcohol and drunken (intoxicated) people, I do not attend parties- I doubt I will even after I turn twenty-one years old. Unfortunately, not too many underage people that I know abide by these rules, and I strongly doubt a high percentage of teenagers do .... [tags: Alcohol]
746 words (2.1 pages)
- Alcohol is a drug that is classified as a central nervous system depressant. There are three forms of alcohol, beer, wine and distilled spirits. Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States and has more adverse effects that most other drugs combined. There are many aspects to consider when thinking about alcohol as a drug. There are many myths surrounding alcohol, including who uses it, what its effects are on users, social and sexual situations and the amounts people drink.... [tags: Sociology of Alcohol Use]
2513 words (7.2 pages)
- Question: Name two prevalent authorities in your life that have shaped how you use, or do not use, alcohol. Explain how and why they have shaped you so. The strongest and most influential person who modeled alcohol use in my childhood was a male relative. I was not completely aware of many of these impacts until adolescence. As a child, I did not know what alcoholism was, I just assumed that the Beefeater Gin stench coming from my relative was his cologne. However, as I grew older and was exposed to a greater variety of people and circumstances, I slowly became aware of alcoholism.... [tags: Alcohol Use]
640 words (1.8 pages)
- Alcohol abuse occurs when drinking becomes a problem that has begun to negatively impact one’s life (Nathan, Wallace, Zweben, & Horvath). “At least 38 million adults drink too much [but] most are not alcoholics. Drinking too much includes binge drinking, high weekly use, and any alcohol use by pregnant women or those under age 21” ("Alcohol Screening and Counseling"). Alcoholics are alcohol abusers who have lost control of their alcohol use (Nathan, Wallace, Zweben, & Horvath). In the DSM V, both alcoholism and alcohol abuse are fall under the category of Alcohol Use Disorder, or AUD, which can range from mild to severe ("Alcohol Use Disorder").... [tags: Alcohol abuse, Alcoholism, Addiction]
1225 words (3.5 pages)
- Discussion This systematic review identified 14 articles that investigated the use of alcohol and trauma recidivism. Among the studies that reported a rate of alcohol-related trauma recidivism the median proportion of trauma recidivism related to alcohol use was 42.9% (range 21-77%). Trauma patients a positive BAC, an alcohol-related first injury, a SMAST Score of 3+, and an abnormal GGT value. This systematic review is the first to synthesize the evidence from studies reporting on the proportion of trauma recidivists presenting to a hospital or trauma center with a history of an alcohol-related trauma.... [tags: Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Physical trauma]
1635 words (4.7 pages)
- Alcohol use amongst adolescents is a major public health problem. The purpose of researching alcohol use amongst adolescents is to gain insight into many affects this drug is having on today’s youth as well as society overall. Understanding the causes of alcoholism drew my attention to researching literature and studies of causes. Alcohol is the most common and also the most abused drug amongst adolescents. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) believes that the frequent use of alcohol amongst adolescents has led to increased binge drinking activities.... [tags: Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Drinking culture]
1020 words (2.9 pages)
- The Dynamics of Alcohol and Marijuana Initiation Alcohol and Marijuana are the most popular substances among adolescents in the United States. To prevent our youth from ever using marijuana or using alcohol too early, we must find out the exact age they are most likely to be initiated to it. Alcohol and Marijuana are often considered as gateway substances to other deadlier drugs. By delaying the onset of use by youths, we can prevent them from ever using other drugs. Many factors play into whether one adolescent is more at risk than another to be a future drug or substance abuser.... [tags: Alcohol and Marijuana Use]
781 words (2.2 pages)