The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is established on the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. Each article is put into place to ensure human rights are protected for all people and nations. Therefore, the United Nations and States vowed to obey the rights of the people. The claims that are made in the articles go hand in hand with several ethical terms. Thus examples are found in the articles; Utilitarianism, The Categorical Imperative, Virtue Ethics, Social Contract Theory, Natural Law and Feminist Ethics.
According to Jeremy Bentham, Utilitarianism is about morality, making the world as happy as possible. The greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people is the goal of utilitarianism. Therefore is it is not about pleasing God but about pleasuring your values and beliefs (Rachels 99). Jeremy stated, “We all feel pleasure and we all feel pain” (Rachels 83). For happiness to be achieved, greater amounts of pleasure rather than pain is ideal. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, all the articles have this theory because the articles are to protect human rights. If the articles are obeyed, then it is benefiting everyone in the society as a whole because it is increasing human rights. For example, article five demands that no one should be punished. The utilitarian theory sees punishment as a sinful act because the wrongdoers that are being punished are likely to be unhappy, regardless if they are guilty or not. The punished individuals increase the amount of unhappiness which therefore violates the utilitarian principle (Rachels 141).
The categorical imperative concept is explained in two ways by Immanuel Kant. “Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time ...
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... to education. Due to the discrimination against women at a young age girls were pulled out of school early to take care of things at home. The article protects women’s right to expand their education to a higher level.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a written document that lets our society function in a beneficial way for everyone. Utilitarianism protects our right to have to greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. The categorical imperative theory protects our right to be treated as an end and not as a means. Virtue ethics provide moral characteristics for everyone. The social contract theory presents a set of rules governing behavior to rational people only if other accept it as well. Natural Law protects us to declare what is right or wrong based on our own beliefs. Lastly, feminism protects the right of equality for women.
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