The communication between any two entities can be either wired or wireless. The concept of wireless technology was started in the year 1923. As we all know that 70% of the earth is full covered with water. It was necessary to develop wireless network that can also work under water. Here arises the concept of acoustic waves. Acoustic wave’s works better in water .Also it can travel long distance inside water and are very fast than radio waves. The concept of underwater wireless communication is a major finding in the field of wireless communications. Applications include discovery of natural resources, marine phenomena, deep-sea archaeology, oceanographic data collection etc
For the working of underwater wireless communication, the acoustic waves are used commonly, which can travel longer distance. But while designing of the acoustic channel, we may face problems such as low speed of sound propagation loss that is, frequency-dependent, severe
multipath. These facts makes designing of underwater wireless communication difficult.
There are several ways of employing such communication of sending and receiving message below water. The most common is using hydrophones. As mentioned, under water communication is difficult due to factors like multi-path propagation, time variations of the channel, small available bandwidth and strong signal attenuation, especially over long ranges. There is low data rates in underwater communication compared to terrestrial communication, since underwater communication uses acoustic waves instead of electromagnetic waves.
The important non-scalar components of the acoustic fiel...
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...], dynamic source routing [DSR]) are more appropriate for dynamic environments but incur a higher latency and still require source-initiated flooding of control packets to establish paths. Reactive protocols may be unsuitable for underwater networks because they also cause a high latency in the establishment of paths, which is amplified underwater by the slow propagation of acoustic signals.
Geographical routing protocols (e.g., greedyface- greedy [GFG], partial-topology knowledge forwarding [PTKF]) are very promising for their scalability feature and limited signaling requirements. However, global positioning system (GPS) radio receivers do not work properly in the underwater environment. Still, underwatersensing devices must estimate their current position, irrespective of the chosen routing approach, to associate the sampled data with their 3D position
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