Mild muscle pain can be a common side effect of physical means, such as intense workouts, over usage of muscle, and/or blocked blood vessels, or by chemical means, such as toxins, heat or drugs. Oftentimes, people who experience muscle aches can easily pinpoint the cause due to their knowledge of the stress, tension, or physical activity they have endured. Rhabdomyolysis, or dissolution of skeletal muscle, is a syndrome caused by injury to skeletal muscle and involves the leakage of large quantities of potentially toxic intracellular contents into plasma (Muscal, 2013). In contrast to mild muscle pain, Rhabdomyolysis, commonly known as ‘Rhabdo’, may result in life-threatening renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) while also being multifactorial in adult patients (Muscal, 2013). Approximately 28-37% of all Rhabdomyolysis cases in the United States require short term hemodyalysis (Melli G, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to explore the causes, signs and symptoms, nursing considerations and workout trends that are being blamed for inducing ‘Rhabdo’ in athletes.
According to the National Discharge Survey, there are approximately 26,000 cases of Rhabdomyolysis that are reported throughout the United States annually (Melli G, 2013). Sixty percent of these cases in adults include multiple factors such as trauma and compression leading to direct muscle injury, occlusion of vessels from thromboemboli or surgical clamping, prolonged immobilization, burns and fractures. However, Rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients is often caused from infections, trauma, metabolic conditions and muscle diseases. (Mannix R,...
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Mannix R, Tan ML, Wright R, Baskin M. Acute pediatric rhabdomyolysis: causes and rates of renal failure. Pediatrics. Nov 2006;118(5):2119-25
Melli G, Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR. Rhabdomyolysis: an evaluation of 475 hospitalized patients. Medicine (Baltimore). Nov 2005;84(6):377-85.
Muscal, E. (2013, September 16). Rhabdomyolysis . Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1007814-overview.
Ray, M. (2010, January ). The Truth About Rhabdomyolysis . Retrieved from The CrossFit Journal : http://journal.crossfit.com/2010/01/rhabdo-pdf.tpl#featureArticleTitle
Sauret, J. M. (2002, March 1). Rhabdomyolysis . Retrieved from American Family Physician : http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0301/p907.html
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