Phonics is the relationships between the sounds of spoken language and the letters used in written language to represent those sounds (NICHD, 2001). “As children become more aware of the sounds in words, they also learn the letters that represent these sounds.” (Ming & Dukes 2010, p.23) Phonics instruction is a way of teaching reading that focuses on letter-sound relationships (Pinnell, 2008). During phonics instruction children are taught letter-sound correspondences and how to use them to spell and read words. The chief goal of phonics instruction is to help beginning readers understand how letters (graphemes) are connected to sounds (phonemes) and that there are systematic and predictable relationships which they can lear...
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