Essay on Underlying Risks for Cardiovascular Disease

Essay on Underlying Risks for Cardiovascular Disease

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Since 1960 the age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has declined steadily in the U.S. due to multiple factors, but still remains one of the primary causes of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Greater control of risk factors and improved treatments for cardiovascular disease has significantly contributed to this decline (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). In the U.S. alone it claims approximately 830,000 each year and accounts for 1/6 of all deaths under the age of 65 (Weiss and Lonnquist, 2011). Based on the 2007 mortality rate data an average of 1 death every 37 seconds is due to cardiovascular disease (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2009). Controlling and reducing risk factors is crucial for saving lives. There are a number of contributing risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which may appear in the form of hereditary, behavioral, and psychological, all of which ultimately converge in social or cultural factors.
The hereditary risk factors for cardiovascular disease are primarily those of which individuals are unable to control, the ones for which they are born with. These risk factors would include an individual’s sex, race, age, and genetics. One out of every five males has some form of cardiovascular disease and the same applies for females. More women than men have cardiovascular disease in this country, but this is only due to the fact that there are more women within the U.S. population (Weiss and Lonnquist, 2011). Men percentage wise are at a higher risk than women. There is a somewhat reduced probability for females to have cardiovascular disease before menopause. This is believed by medical researchers and scientists to be directly related to the natural hor...


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... J. (2009). Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 updated: a report from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American Heart Association. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192667
Lynch, J. W. (1996). Do cardiovascular risk factors explain the relation between socioeconomic status, risk of all-cause morality, cariovascular mortality, and acute mycardial infarction? American Journal of Epidemiology, 144 (10), 934-942.
Schmid, T. L., Pratt, M., & Howze, E. (1995). Policy as intervention: environmental and policy approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Public Health, 85(9), 1207-1211.
Weiss, G. L., & Lonnquist, L. E. (2011). The sociology of health, healing, and illness (7 ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
William, W. D. (2004). Culture and the risk of disease. British Medical Bulletin, 69, 21-31. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldh020

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