There is also a high dependency on OCS to identify trends and patterns of crime (Schneider and Tilley, 2004). Consequently, this could affect the credibility and authenticity of the research finding (Bennett and Holloway, 2004; Schneider and Tilley, 2004). Bennett and Holloway (2004) suggest that researchers can prevent this from happening and accurately define gang membership by using self-report studies to provide a better understanding. However, Marshall et al (2005) critics the use of self-report studies, arguing that it can be problematic. For example, young people may be unaware that they are in what is identified as a gang or feel they are labelled as a gang member despite just hanging out with friends and some may be reluctant to label their a...
... middle of paper ...
... 2006; Spergel, 1995; Youth Justice Board, 2007). As a result, young people may feel pressurised to join the gangs in order not to be ostracised or victimised. On the other hand, they may act as positive role models for the young people who aspire to be just like them (Thornberry et al., 2003).
Furthermore, research claims that gang membership enables young males to affirm their masculinity, especially when they experience blocked opportunities to legitimate jobs or education which allows them to express the prescribed masculine role set by patriarchal society (Burke, 2005; Hallsworth and Young, 2004). Burke (2005, pg. 117) claimed that “[The] maintenance of a manly image was found to be most important in the subculture” and this is shown in gang members possession and use of lethal weapons, attachment to their territory, engagement in postcode war and retributions
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