Essay about The Uk, A Survey Conducted By Spergel And Curry

Essay about The Uk, A Survey Conducted By Spergel And Curry

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In comparison to the UK, a survey conducted by Spergel and Curry (1993) in the USA utilised a similar methodology and generated an estimate of 4,881 youth gangs. Recent research conducted by The US Department of Justice (2006) identified 27,900 gangs and 774,000 gang members in the USA in 2006 and the number of youth gangs increased by 28% and gang members by 6% between 2002 to 2008 (cited in Egley et al., 2010, p.1). Whereas in the UK, The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) in 2007 in the UK “identified 172 named youth gangs in London alone, many using firearms, estimated to have been responsible for around 28 knife and gun murders” (Pitts, 2007 cited in Goldson, 2011 pg. 164), using alternative definitions (Pitts, 2007). On the other hand, Hallsworth and Young’s (2008) found that “gang membership in the UK is no more than 3-7 percent of the youthful population” (Hallworth and Young, 2008 pg. 179). Therefore, showing the implications of using different definitions to identify gangs.
There is also a high dependency on OCS to identify trends and patterns of crime (Schneider and Tilley, 2004). Consequently, this could affect the credibility and authenticity of the research finding (Bennett and Holloway, 2004; Schneider and Tilley, 2004). Bennett and Holloway (2004) suggest that researchers can prevent this from happening and accurately define gang membership by using self-report studies to provide a better understanding. However, Marshall et al (2005) critics the use of self-report studies, arguing that it can be problematic. For example, young people may be unaware that they are in what is identified as a gang or feel they are labelled as a gang member despite just hanging out with friends and some may be reluctant to label their a...

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... 2006; Spergel, 1995; Youth Justice Board, 2007). As a result, young people may feel pressurised to join the gangs in order not to be ostracised or victimised. On the other hand, they may act as positive role models for the young people who aspire to be just like them (Thornberry et al., 2003).
Furthermore, research claims that gang membership enables young males to affirm their masculinity, especially when they experience blocked opportunities to legitimate jobs or education which allows them to express the prescribed masculine role set by patriarchal society (Burke, 2005; Hallsworth and Young, 2004). Burke (2005, pg. 117) claimed that “[The] maintenance of a manly image was found to be most important in the subculture” and this is shown in gang members possession and use of lethal weapons, attachment to their territory, engagement in postcode war and retributions

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