We now understand that E3 is a major factor in targeting specificity, and malfunctions lead to unwanted diseases. Parkin, a specific enzyme within E3 enzyme, has been discovered to have a impact in many neurodegenerative diseases (2). The parkin gene falls under the RING finger motif, which has activity similar to E3, but its function is not yet fully understood (2). In prevalent diseases like Parkinson’s disease, parkin gene has expressed mutations most commonly in Autosomal Recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP), which falls under the Parkinson’s disease family (2). Parkinson’s disease is known to be a neurodegenerative brain disorder, which includes Lewy bodies and dopaminergic cell death. Ardley et al. determined that no parkin gene is found in Lewy bodies of the brain (2). Mutations of parkin hinder the function of both E2 and E3 (2). A person with this mutation risks a buildup of parkin since they have lost the ability to appropriately target proteins (2). This excess leads to the development of aggregates, which express toxicity in the neurons of the substantia nigra, and causes degeneration of Parkinson’s disease (2). This particular gene has an indication of a loss of function due to the amount of mu...
... middle of paper ...
...ive feedback inhibitor (9). Due to the inhibition of Mdm2, p53 gets transported to the cytoplasm and taken by a proteasome, which causes degradation (10). In a study done by Yang and his colleagues, there is an inverse relationship between Mdm2 and another protein called E-cadherin (10). E-cadherin functions as a substrate for Mdm2. This correlation was investigated in patients that had lymph node metastasis (10). The recurrences of metastasis in patients with breast cancer are seen to have more overexpression of Mdm2 (10). The function of Mdm2 inhibits how cells are being controlled, for instance, increasing cell-cell dissociation and invasion (10). It is vital to have an understanding of breast cancer regulation and how Mdm2 affects in different aspects of prognosis (10). The research done on Mdm2 gives an insight on different approaches for cancer treatment (10).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Recent developments in the targeted treatment of cancer via proteasome pathway inhibition have led researchers to explore more efficient means of delivering proteasome inhibitors to cancerous cells. Currently, the only drug approved by the FDA for cancer treatment (specifically, multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma) by proteasome pathway inhibition is Bortezomib (Velcade®). While considered a targeted approach to cancer treatment, this method relies on the stronger dependence of cancerous cells on protein production and lysis than normal cells, making this method of treatment still nonspecific to cells.... [tags: Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Proteasome]
1569 words (4.5 pages)
- The human body consists of many important systems. The nervous system is one of those systems, it is split into two main parts. The spinal cord and the brain make up the Central Nervous System (CNS). The receptors, effectors, and the intermediate neurons make the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The nervous system at the basic level is composed of a receptor, a sensory neuron, the spinal cord, the brain, a motor neuron, and an effector. The receptor when stimulated sends signals to the spinal cord through the sensory neuron.... [tags: Stem cell, Embryonic stem cell, Nervous system]
1082 words (3.1 pages)
- The ideal purpose of the gastrointestinal or digestive system is to take the immense bolus’ of food made of lipids, carbohydrates, and protein and dissect them into particles tiny enough so that they can be consumed into the cardiovascular system of the body where the body can deploy on the the substances necessary for health and progression in the body. The way these bolus’ of food are dissected is by a process called mastication and the chemical changes of the gastrointestinal system and it’s enzymes.... [tags: pancreas, protein, acid]
525 words (1.5 pages)
- Enzymes are protein molecules that are made by organisms to catalyze reactions. Typically, enzymes speeds up the rate of the reaction within cells. Enzymes are primarily important to living organisms because it helps with metabolism and the digestive system. For example, enzymes can break larger molecules into smaller molecules to help the body absorb the smaller pieces faster. In addition, some enzyme molecules bind molecules together. However, the initial purpose of the enzyme is to speed up reactions for a certain reason because they are “highly selective catalysts” (Castro J.... [tags: Enzyme, PH, Enzyme substrate, Chemistry]
1073 words (3.1 pages)
- As globular proteins, enzymes have a specific three-dimensional shape which is determined by their sequence of amino acids. This specific tertiary structure is held together by ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and disulphide bridges. Despite their generally large size, enzyme molecules have a small region that is functional, known as; the active site. The substrate molecule is held within the active site by bonds that temporarily form between the R groups of the amino acids of the active site and groups on the substrate molecule.... [tags: Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- Enzymes are protein based molecules that help to speed up reactions in other molecules. They cause reactions without being used up or changing after the reaction is completed. Enzymes are the body’s workers and they are produced by all living things. Enzymes are made of chains of amino acids. The amino acids are linked in specific ways to complete whichever job they were made to do. Each enzyme was built for a different job and will only work with a specific substance. The efficiency of enzymes is dependant on the temperatures that enzymes are exposed to.... [tags: metabolic enzymes, digestive enzymes, biology,]
679 words (1.9 pages)
- A computer system consists of hardware and software. A computer system consists of hardware and software. Hardwareis the equipment, which makes up the computer system. Hardware consists of: - Input devices such as keyboard, mouse, joystick - The Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Output devices such as a printer, monitor, graph plotter - Backing storage devices such as disc drive, hard drive - Media such as discs, tapes, paper etc There is hardware that I used is: · Mouse · Keyboard · Printer · Monitor A tracker ball mouse ==================== A tracker ball mouse is an input device and similar to a mouse but the ball is set into a cup on the top of the unit.... [tags: Computer Science]
2184 words (6.2 pages)
- Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid, which is synthesized by hydroxylation of an essential amino acid phenylalanine. Protein Kinases are group of enzymes that play an important role in the complexity of the several biological systems present in the human body. The genetic information of humans is known to consist of about 500 protein kinases, which are structurally identified by having a 3-dimensional structure.1 Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups to residues of tyrosine by the use phosphate obtained from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).... [tags: chemotherapy, amino acid, enzymes, chemistry]
1193 words (3.4 pages)
- Chemical Kinetics is the branch of chemistry that studies the speed at which a chemical reaction occur and the factor that influence this speed. What is meant by the speed of a reaction is the rate at which the concentrations of reactants and products change within a time period. Some reactions occur almost instantaneously, while others take days or years. Chemical kinetics understanding I used in the process of designing drugs, controlling pollution and the processing of food. Most of the time chemical kinetics is used to speed or to increase the rate of a reaction rather than to maximize the amount of product.... [tags: Chemical Kinetics: Enzymes]
1088 words (3.1 pages)
- Skill #28 Kirstin Krueger #21839116 ELISA is an abbreviation for "enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay." An ELISA test uses different parts of the immune system, different antibodies, and color changes to detect immune responses in the body. CPLi, or Canine Pancreatic Lipase Immunoreactivity, is a specific lipase that is only found in canine pancreatic tissues. The CPLi ELISA snap test is made by Idexx and is used to measure the concentrations of pancreatic lipase in the serum of the patient. An antibody elsa test works when a blood sample and the conjugate specific for that test are combined together.... [tags: ELISA, Antibody, Eva Engvall, Immune system]
986 words (2.8 pages)