Essay on The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Consists Of Different Enzymes

Essay on The Ubiquitin Proteasome System Consists Of Different Enzymes

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The ubiquitin-proteasome system comprises of different enzymes that undergo specific roles in the cells. One of the main enzymes is E3, which is an ubiquitin-protein ligase, and distinguishes protein substrate (1). Within E3 ligase, there are distinct diversified protein groups named HECT, RING finger, and U-box (1). This group of motifs can be further divided to help us identify enzymes like parkin and an oncogene Mdm2. These specific enzymes play vital roles in human diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and breast cancer.
We now understand that E3 is a major factor in targeting specificity, and malfunctions lead to unwanted diseases. Parkin, a specific enzyme within E3 enzyme, has been discovered to have a impact in many neurodegenerative diseases (2). The parkin gene falls under the RING finger motif, which has activity similar to E3, but its function is not yet fully understood (2). In prevalent diseases like Parkinson’s disease, parkin gene has expressed mutations most commonly in Autosomal Recessive Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP), which falls under the Parkinson’s disease family (2). Parkinson’s disease is known to be a neurodegenerative brain disorder, which includes Lewy bodies and dopaminergic cell death. Ardley et al. determined that no parkin gene is found in Lewy bodies of the brain (2). Mutations of parkin hinder the function of both E2 and E3 (2). A person with this mutation risks a buildup of parkin since they have lost the ability to appropriately target proteins (2). This excess leads to the development of aggregates, which express toxicity in the neurons of the substantia nigra, and causes degeneration of Parkinson’s disease (2). This particular gene has an indication of a loss of function due to the amount of mu...


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...ive feedback inhibitor (9). Due to the inhibition of Mdm2, p53 gets transported to the cytoplasm and taken by a proteasome, which causes degradation (10). In a study done by Yang and his colleagues, there is an inverse relationship between Mdm2 and another protein called E-cadherin (10). E-cadherin functions as a substrate for Mdm2. This correlation was investigated in patients that had lymph node metastasis (10). The recurrences of metastasis in patients with breast cancer are seen to have more overexpression of Mdm2 (10). The function of Mdm2 inhibits how cells are being controlled, for instance, increasing cell-cell dissociation and invasion (10). It is vital to have an understanding of breast cancer regulation and how Mdm2 affects in different aspects of prognosis (10). The research done on Mdm2 gives an insight on different approaches for cancer treatment (10).

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