Tyrosine Kinase and the Importance in Biological System Essay

Tyrosine Kinase and the Importance in Biological System Essay

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Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid, which is synthesized by hydroxylation of an essential amino acid phenylalanine. Protein Kinases are group of enzymes that play an important role in the complexity of the several biological systems present in the human body. The genetic information of humans is known to consist of about 500 protein kinases, which are structurally identified by having a 3-dimensional structure.1
Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups to residues of tyrosine by the use phosphate obtained from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Protein phosphorylation is the process of introducing a phosphate group to a protein, which causes a change in their activity, cellular location, and other proteins associated with them. They are usually located on the cell surface, inside the cytoplasm. Tyrosine kinase is a very important enzyme for signal transduction.2 They are known to consist of about 58 receptors known as RTKs and 32 non-receptors in the genes of humans. RTKs are usually located in the plasma membrane of humans. They are usually activated by the ligand-ligand linking of protein oligomers, which in turn merges the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains.3 This paper looks into the mechanism of tyrosine kinase, its role in biological systems, and laboratory techniques associated with it.
Mechanism of Tyrosine Kinase
The mechanism of tyrosine kinase involves the transfer of phosphate group from ATP involved in phoshporylation to a substrate, which in turn releases ADP and phosphotyrosine.
Figure 1: Mechanism of Tyrosine kinase.4
Tyrosine kinase receptors belong to a large family of receptors that share similar molecular structures, which consists of a ligand binding region, a sing...


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...r chemotherapy has been useful so far, but more experiments and clinical trials can still be created to perfect it.



















References
1. Hubbard, Stevan. R., Handbook of Cell Signaling; Stuctures of Serine/Threonine and Tyrosine Kinases. Bradshaw, R. A., Dennis E.A,Ed.; New York, 2009; pp 413-418.
2. Manfred, Schwab. Tyrosine Kinase. Encyclopedia of Cancer. 2009,3090-3092.
3. Hubbard, S.; Miller, W.Receptor tyrosine kinases:mechanisms of activation and signaling.Curr Opin Cell Biol, 2007, 19, 117-123.
4. Manash, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Tyrosine kInase- Role and significance in Cancer. International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2004, 1, 101-115.
5. Hiu, C.; Garrido, A. ; Adams, E.; Schepdael, A. HPLC-UV Method for Determining Phosphorylated Peptide and for Abl1 Tyrosine kinase Inhibition study. Chromatographia. 2014, 77, 241-247.

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