Types of Motivation Essay

Types of Motivation Essay

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Motivation is defined as the accumulation of different process which influence and direct our behavior to achieve a goal (Negussie, 2012). According to Deci, there are two broad classes of motivation, which are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. He states: “A person is intrinsically motivated if he performs an activity for no apparent reward except the activity itself. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity because it leads to external rewards.” (Turnage & Muchinsky, 1976) In other word, intrinsic rewards are intangible rewards or psychological rewards while extrinsic rewards are tangible rewards and these rewards are external to the job or task performed by employee (Negussie, 2012).

Although, is not always easy to define in practice, the concept of intrinsic motivation is embedded in many of the major theories of work motivation. Maslow wrote about self-actualization which means the needs to fulfill one’s potentialities while Alderfer’s growth needs describe a person’s need to explore, investigate and master his or her environment. The similarity between McGregor’s Theory Y and McClelland’s achievement motivation theory is both also stress on the importance of an internal desire to succeed at challenging tasks and seek responsibility. Based on the few theories stated, a common assumption make is that people need to feel competent (Wiersma, 1992).

The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction can be descriptively categorized into two major types: as an individual characteristic or fairly stable personal, and as a fairly changeable psychological state. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction is most often used in Organization Behavior to describe a person’s orientation toward his or ...


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...ted causes of performance as determinants of intrinsic motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 28(4), 876-888.
4. Broedling, L. A. (1977). The uses of the intrinsic-extrinsic distinction in explaining motivation and organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 267-276.
5. Negussie, N. (2012). Relationship between rewards and nurses' work motivation in Addis Ababa hospitals. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 22(2), 107-112.
6. Turnage, J. J., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1976). The effects of reward contingency and participative decision making on intrinsically and extrinsically motivating tasks.Academy of Management Journal, 19(3), 482-489.
7. Kowalewski, S. J., & Phillips, S. L. (2012). Preferences for performance based employee rewards: evidence from small business environments. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 5(2), 65-76.

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