Types Of Antibiotics For Bacterial Infections Essay

Types Of Antibiotics For Bacterial Infections Essay

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Antibiotics are widely used across the population to treat bacterial infections. The ability for these antibiotics to induce bacterial cells is fixed on the cellular function inhibited by a specific drug-target interaction (1). Antibiotics are classified in many ways. One way to classify types of antibiotics is whether they have the ability to induce the cell death – bactericidal drugs – or inhibit cell growth – bacteriostatic drugs (1). Another method of classifying antibiotic is the mechanisms of action they undergo. This includes interference with cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis inhibition, interference with nucleic acid synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathway, and disruption of bacterial membrane structure. Specifically within the class of interference with nucleic acid synthesis, there are two subclasses including topoisomerase inhibitors and RNA polymerase inhibitors. Topoisomerase enzymes are involved in replication, transcription, and recombination of DNA along with playing a critical role in chromosome structure, condensation, decondensation, and segregation; all cells are believed to contain two types of topoisomerases. Type 1 enzymes include the bacterial and eukaryotic topoisomerases I and III. These enzymes are monomeric in nature, function without a high-energy cofactor, and alter the helical pitch of the genetic material by allowing passage of a single DNA strand of a double helix (2). Type 2 enzymes include bacterial DNA gyrase, bacterial topoisomerase IV, and eukaryotic topoisomerase II. These enzymes are multisubunit proteins, require ATP, and modulate topology by passing an intact helix through a transient double-stranded break they create in the DNA backbone (2). Topoisomerase enzymes contain a common...

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...f the sequence and position of the gene in a bacterial chromosome. As genes mutate, they divide and replicate creating a resistance to the antibiotic. Once mutation occurs, these genes can be passed down through the genes to the offspring (4). Usually, though, when a drug resistance gene is passed down, the genes are typically bearing a single family or type of antibiotic (4). This phenomenon was found after prolonged use for treatment of a urinary tract infection (4). Ciprofloxacin is an example of this type of drug used to treat urinary tract infections. The problem of antibacterial resistance is a challenge worldwide. For example, in an outbreak of E. coli in Beijing, China in 1997-1999, about 60% of the affected were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (5). There is a consistent resistance to not just ciprofloxacin, but to all quinolone antibiotics as a class.

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