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...f the sequence and position of the gene in a bacterial chromosome. As genes mutate, they divide and replicate creating a resistance to the antibiotic. Once mutation occurs, these genes can be passed down through the genes to the offspring (4). Usually, though, when a drug resistance gene is passed down, the genes are typically bearing a single family or type of antibiotic (4). This phenomenon was found after prolonged use for treatment of a urinary tract infection (4). Ciprofloxacin is an example of this type of drug used to treat urinary tract infections. The problem of antibacterial resistance is a challenge worldwide. For example, in an outbreak of E. coli in Beijing, China in 1997-1999, about 60% of the affected were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (5). There is a consistent resistance to not just ciprofloxacin, but to all quinolone antibiotics as a class.
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