Essay on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ( Juvenile Diabetes )

Essay on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ( Juvenile Diabetes )

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Juvenile Diabetes)
The pancreas is an organ in the human body that’s main function is to support digestion and produce hormones that control blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon are the two hormones that are involved with blood glucose levels. Throughout the pancreas there are tiny nests of cells known as islets of Langerhans. The majority of those cells are beta cells that produce and store the hormone insulin. The alpha cells are also located in the islets that produce and store glucagon. The insulin lowers blood glucose levels and glucagon raises blood glucose levels. After an individual has a meal, the carbohydrates from that meal are converted into glucose in the intestine and liver, and then soon enter the blood stream. The beta cells can sense an increase in the blood glucose levels; they then begin to secrete insulin to enter the blood. The insulin assists the glucose to enter the body’s cells, where the insulin can be burned by the liver and muscles to form energy. When you have type 1 diabetes mellitus, there is no longer a balance between the alpha and beta cells because the beta cells produce very little to no insulin. The glucose then fails to enter the cells effectively and the glucose remains stuck in the blood stream that will result in hyperglycemic blood glucose (Saudi, 2009).
Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes is a chronic illness when the body is unable to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but is most common in young children. People with type 1 are usually not obese and can initially present diabetic ketoacidosis. If insulin is withdrawn from the patient, ketosis and eventual...


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...mal most of the time, it can dramatically reduce the risk of some of these major life complications. Eventually diabetes complications may be disabling or life-threatening. Diabetes can dramatically increase the risk of various cardiovascular problems, which may include a heart attack, stroke, and high blood pressure. When there is an excess amount of glucose in the blood, it can damage the walls of the blood vessels that nourish the nerves. Once the nerves are injured it can cause tingling, numbness, and burning; or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and spreads upwards. When the blood glucose levels are uncontrolled, the patient will eventually lose all sense of feeling in the limbs that are affected. A woman who is pregnant and has high glucose levels can be at risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects (Type 1 Diabetes, 2014).



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