Essay on Tumor Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian Cancer

Essay on Tumor Protein 53 and its role in Ovarian Cancer

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TP53, also called tumor protein 53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes p53 and acts as a control center for the cell to act on when stressed (Brachova). Human p53 is a nuclear phsophoprotein of molecular weight 53kDa located on chromosome 17 containing 11 exons and 10 introns (Ling). One of its primary roles is as a transcription factor and in its active state is a homotetramer comprised of four 393 amino acid residues (Joerger , The tumor suppressor p53). Another main role p53 plays is as a tumor suppressor and once activated, protects against cancer by “functioning as a sequence-specific transcription factor, through protein-protein interactions, activating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair (Brachova).”
As one of the most common tumor suppressor genes, TP53 is associated with almost every cancer, making it one of the most complex and most studied genes in the field of cancer research. In the latest version of the TP53 mutation database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, about “1300 different cancer-related single amino-acid changes in the core domain of the protein have been reported (Joerger).” Because of its involvement in a plethora of cancers, understanding the intricacy of this molecule has been tedious. Though there has been much advancement elucidating the many mutations involved in the molecule and the specific roles they play in each cancer, there is still much to be discovered. In recent years, there has been a lot drug discovery focusing on the structure of the p53 molecule’s role in tumors in two separate ways. These two ways are “to either target the p53 pathway, in particular negative regulators of p53, or to target the destabilized oncogenic p53 mutants (Joerger , The tum...

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...erkant, D. N. Rider, G. Chenevix-Trench, P. M. Webb, J. Beesley, X. Chen, C. Phelan, R. Sutphen, T. A. Sellers, L. Pearce, A. H. Wu, D. Van Den Berg, D. Conti, C. K. Elund, R. Anderson, M. T. Goodman, G. Lurie, M. E. Carney, P. J. Thompson, S. A. Gayther, S. J. Ramus, I. Jacobs, S. Kruger Kjaer, E. Hogdall, J. Blaakaer, C. Hogdall, D. F. Easton, H. Song, P. D.p. Pharoah, A. S. Whittemore, V. Mcguire, L. Quaye, H. Anton-Culver, A. Ziogas, K. L. Terry, D. W. Cramer, S. E. Hankinson, S. S. Tworoger, B. Calingaert, S. Chanock, M. Sherman, and M. Garcia-Closas. "Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the TP53 Region and Susceptibility to Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer." Cancer Research 69 (2009): 2349-357.
11. Sturzbecher HW, Deppert W. “The tumor suppressor protein p53: Relationship of structure to function (Review).” Oncology Reports 1: 301-307, 1994.

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