Essay about Tuberculosis in Hispanic Residents of San Diego

Essay about Tuberculosis in Hispanic Residents of San Diego

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TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is a contagious and often-severe airborne disease caused by bacterial infection. TB typically affects the lungs, but it also may affect any other organ of the body. It is usually treated with a regimen of drugs taken for 6 months to 2 years, depending on the type of infection (NIAID, 2014).

An estimated of one-third of population of the world is affected by tuberculosis. In 2012, an estimated 8.6 new million TB cases were identified worldwide while an estimated 1.3 million died from the disease (WHO, 2013). In US, a total of 9,951 TB cases (3.2 per 100,000) were reported in 2012 (CDC, 2013). Tuberculosis in the United States is the disease of the minorities (see Figure 1), with the highest number of cases being reported in California, Texas, Florida, and New York (Miramontes, 2012). Combined, these four states accounted for 4,967 TB cases, representing half (49.9%) of all TB cases reported in 2012 (CDC, 2013). In 2012, California alone reported 2,191 new tuberculosis (TB) cases, an incidence rate of 5.8 cases per 100,000 people (CDPH, 2013).


Figure 1

Tuberculosis in San Diego County

In 2012, the County of San Diego reported a total of 234 cases of active TB, representing an incidence rate of 7.4 per 100,000, which is, respectively, 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than nationwide and statewide incidence rates (TBSD, 2014). Hispanics, an estimated 32.7% of the population of the San Diego County (USCB, 2014), represent the race/ethnicity group most severely affected with the disease. The racial and ethnic breakdown of San Diego County TB cases in 2012 is shown in Figure 2 (TBSD, 2014).

Based on the aforementioned data (TBSD, 2014, USCB, 2014), the incidence rate of tub...


... middle of paper ...


...012).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Trends in Tuberculosis – United States, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6211a2.htm

County of San Diego (TBSD). (2014). Tuberculosis Control and Refugee Health Program. Retrieved January 31, 2014 from http://www.sdcounty.ca.gov/hhsa/programs/phs/tuberculosis_control_program/statistics.html
County of San Diego. (TBSD Report). (November, 2012). Tuberculosis Control Program 2011 Annual Report.
United States Census Bureau (USCB). (2014). San Diego County California Quick Facts. Retrieved January 31, 2014 from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06073.html
United States-México Border Health Commission (USMBHC). (2009). Tuberculosis Along the United States-Mexico Border. Retrieved January 31, 2014 from http://www.borderhealth.org/about_us.php

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