Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

Length: 901 words (2.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Excellent

Open Document

Essay Preview

More ↓
Alzheimer's disease is an acquired impairment of cognitive and behavioral functioning of unknown cause that can evolve into dementia. Patients with Alzheimer's disease most commonly present with insidiously progressive memory loss. Many Alzheimer's disease treatments have been explored. The main Alzheimer's disease medications are centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors. Alzheimer's disease management should emphasize risk assessment, treatment, and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease symptoms as well as consideration of special circumstances.

antiviral Treatment for AD?
The involvement of HSV1 in AD suggests that antiviral agents might prevent further deterioration of patients, and possibly, in the future, vaccination against HSV1 might prevent the development of AD. Future clinical trials should investigate the usage of antiherpetics such as acyclovir (ACV), and its biodrug valacyclovir (which is converted to ACV), in AD sufferers. ACV crosses the normal blood–brain barrier and causes few side effects, apart from in patients with renal impairment. ACV has been used for treating MS patients (based on the putative role of another herpes virus in MS) and a clinical trial showed that it crossed the blood–brain barrier, that no patients demonstrated a damaged barrier [Lycke et al. 2003] and that even a dosage of 3 g per day for 2 years caused no visible ill effects [Friedman et al. 2005].

ACV is a nucleoside analogue that stops viral replication. Its action depends on the presence of HSV1 thymidine kinase (TK). TK phosphorylates ACV to its monophosphate form, and then cell enzymes further phosphorylate it to the diphosphate and triphosphate forms. The triphosphate competes with dGTP as a DNA polymerase substrate and so it prevents chain elongation in newly forming DNA. Thus, ACV 'finds' HSV1-infected cells and stops virus replication.

Another possible agent is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which acts by a completely different mechanism from that of ACV and other anti-HSV1 antiviral agents in current use for acute HSV1 disorders such as HSE (and cold sores). IVIG products are derived from the pooled plasma of thousands of people, so they contain large amounts of neutralizing antibodies to a number of microbes, including HSV1. IVIG is able not only to neutralize any extracellular virus but also to help destroy cells acutely infected with HSV1 [Kohl and Loo, 1986]: a useful feature as the virus can be transferred from cell to cell without release of extracellular virus. In murine models of HSE, IVIG was found to protect against death and it reduced the number of trigeminal ganglia containing latent HSV1 [Erlich and Mills, 1986].

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease." 123HelpMe.com. 25 Jan 2020
    <https://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=235141>.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Factors, Symptoms and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Essay

- Alzheimer Disease 1 Alzheimer Disease Introduction This research paper will examine factors, signs of symptoms, treatment, when to visit a doctor and how to care for a love one with Alzheimer disease. In the early stages of the disease, scientists have estimated that 500,000 people in their 30’s, 40’s and 50’s that have Alzheimer disease or a related dementia. Younger individuals may have problems with memory, thinking and concentration....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]

Research Papers
940 words (2.7 pages)

Alzheimer 's Disease Causes And Treatment Essay

- Alzheimer’s Disease Causes and Treatment Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most mysterious diseases in the world. This disease named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer a German psychiatrist who discovered the pathological disorder of dementia. People should learn more about this disease because the chances of becoming an Alzheimer’s patient increase. The purpose of this paper is to discover the causes, treatment and the way of lifestyle plays in Alzheimer’s disease. Definition of Alzheimer 's Disease Alzheimer 's is a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain 's neurons or nerve cells, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and behavioral changes and language skills....   [tags: Alzheimer's disease, Neuron, Acetylcholine]

Research Papers
1016 words (2.9 pages)

Symptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer 's Disease Essay

- “No cure” is two words that cause worry and stress faster than any other two words put together. Over 100 years ago, German physician Alois Alzheimer did an analysis of the brain of a dementia patient. This analysis and study later became known as Alzeimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disease that becomes more severe with time and is expected to affect 100 million worldwide by 2050. There is no cure. With Alzheimer’s disease, brain cells lose their structural support, causing cells to degenerate and die....   [tags: Alzheimer's disease, Memory, Neurology, Brain]

Research Papers
1537 words (4.4 pages)

Pathophysiology, Progression, and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Essay

- Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that affects cognitive function in the elderly population. The exact cause of the disease is unknown but may include genetic as well as environmental factors. A progression of specific neurological changes allows the progression of the disease. Short-term memory losses along with dementia are typical symptoms of the disease. A definite diagnosis of the disease currently can only be confirmed by an autopsy. The disease progresses in five stages that will vary with every patient....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]

Research Papers
1417 words (4 pages)

Symptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer 's Disease Essay

- As we age our bodies begin to break down, but occasionally an abnormal breakdown occurs. In 1906 a German physician named Alois Alzheimer had a haunting case that had never been seen before. His patient, Auguste D. had a profound memory loss and a worsening physiological state. She had trouble recognizing her own family members and where she was at. Once she passed away during the autopsy he found considerable shrinking and deposits around nerve cells. This would soon be known as Alzheimer’s, a neurodegenerative disorder where the body destroys it’s own brain and nerve cells....   [tags: Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Neurology, Memory]

Research Papers
1106 words (3.2 pages)

Is Cholinergic Treatment Effective For Alzheimer 's Disease? Essay

- IS CHOLINERGIC TREATMENT EFFECTIVE IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. INTRODUCTION Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most important health problems and also, one of the most common neurodegenerative dementia. According to Brayne et al. (2011) dementia has a prevalence estimated of more than 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years through to 2040. In 2009 to 2010, Australian had more than 332,000 inhabitants with dementia and is expected to rise by one third to 400,000 in less than ten years....   [tags: Alzheimer's disease, Acetylcholine, Cholinergic]

Research Papers
1391 words (4 pages)

Essay on Promising Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

- ... Multiple roles of HDAC inhibition in neurodegenerative conditions. Trends in neurosciences. 2009 Nov;32(11):591-601. PubMed PMID: 19775759. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2771446. 6. Dagnas M, Mons N. Region- and age-specific patterns of histone acetylation related to spatial and cued learning in the water maze. Hippocampus. 2013;23(7):581-91. 7. Eric H JH, Christian T,Ilker YE, Brunhilde W and Ingmar B. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor: Possible Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorder. Expert Opin investigDrugs....   [tags: histone, cognitive, dementia]

Free Essays
561 words (1.6 pages)

Pathology and Current Treatment of the Alzheimer's Disease Essay

- Pathology and Current Treatment of the Alzheimer's Disease Introduction One of the most feared aspects of aging is the deterioration of the memory and cognitive function (dementia) that occurs among the elderly with increasing frequency with advancing years. A significant proportion of otherwise healthy elderly persons show a significant decline in mental function later in life. It has been estimated that 10% of the population over the age of 65 suffers from mild to moderate dementia and 4-5% suffer from severe dementia....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]

Research Papers
3630 words (10.4 pages)

Essay on Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

- Cause, Pathology and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Growing up in the 80's I remember my mother questioning President Reagan's politics, policies, morality, and even his sanity. Though I would not wish a debilitating disease on anyone, I had to laugh at the irony when I heard Reagan had Alzheimer's Disease(AD). To think that his "I do not recall" line during the Contra scandal may have been true. The idea of the President of the United States suffering the early stages of a disease causing dementia, confusion, irritability, and memory loss(1) during the very dangerous Cold War gives me the heebie jeebies....   [tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essays]

Research Papers
694 words (2 pages)

Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Essay

- SYMTOPS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER’S Alzheimer’s disease can be a very disturbing situation for family and friends that have loved ones that are infected with this disease. Being able to diagnosis Alzheimer’s disease can be done somewhat accurately within a 75%-97% range based on a clinical source. These sources use special tools to help test for Alzheimer’s one of those tools consist of “monitoring short and long-term memory” (Griffith, 2002). The tools that are used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease can help show symptoms that lead towards disabilities that could affect how one can react to problem solving or to other numerous problems that end up becoming defective when...   [tags: memory, cognitive, donepezil ]

Research Papers
621 words (1.8 pages)

Further, a study of genital herpes in humans showed that the reduction in recurrence frequency and duration was far greater, and the lesion severity less, with IVIG treatment than with ACV, and there was a trend towards IVIG causing a greater reduction in viral load [Masci et al. 1995].

One potential problem with the use of IVIG in AD is that it might have only limited access to the brain, but there is evidence that the blood–brain barrier is permeable in AD [Pahnke et al. 2009] and so it is likely that IVIG would enter AD patients' brains. In fact, IVIG has been tried in a few AD patients for a totally different purpose, namely, to augment their relatively low level of anti- Aß antibodies, with the aim of enhancing the clearance of Aß. A very small-scale retrospective study of patients treated with 0.4 g/kg every 2 weeks for 3.5–6 months found that IVIG was well tolerated, and that neurocognitive test scores were either stable or otherwise showed trends toward improvement in some aspects [Devi et al. 2008]. A subsequent equally small study of patients with mild AD showed that anti- Aß antibodies in serum increased proportionately to IVIG dose, and that 'mini-mental state' scores increased during treatment [Relkin et al. 2009]; interestingly, use of monoclonal anti- Aß antibodies did not lead to similar encouraging effects on cognitive function, suggesting perhaps that the IVIG had affected some factor other than Aß. Further, a recent retrospective study has shown that prior treatment with IVIG (at least once during a 3-year period) reduces the risk of developing AD in patients aged 65 years or over, compared with untreated controls (although over 30% of those treated with IVIG had cancer diagnoses, and so their lower risk of AD might have reflected their associated treatments and diagnoses [Fillit et al. 2009]). It is unknown whether in these studies there was an IVIG-induced anti- HSV1 action (especially in APOE-e4 carriers, as it is the combination of HSV1 in brain and APOE-e4 that confers risk of AD, but unfortunately no data on APOE genotypes were presented). However, an anti-HSV1 action might explain the apparent paradox that monoclonal Aß did not have the same beneficial effect as IVIG.

Currently available anti-HSV1 antiviral agents work by stopping viral DNA synthesis and therefore they prevent only the damage caused by the virus that is initiated as a consequence of viral DNA synthesis. Thus, they might be ineffective against damage occurring independently of viral DNA synthesis, for example damage resulting from viral attachment to the cell membrane or viral entry into the cell. However, we have found that the HSV1-induced formation of Aß and of AD-like tau occurs only after synthesis of the first group of viral proteins following viral entry: the so-called immediate–early (IE) proteins [Wozniak, Frost, Preston, and Itzhaki, unpublished observations]. Consistently, preliminary experiments with ACV show that its addition to HSV1-infected cell cultures does indeed decrease greatly the levels of Aß and of AD-like tau in the cells (as well as viral replication, as expected


Antiviral agents, unlike other treatments that are available or are being tested, would provide a completely new approach in that they would inhibit a major cause of the disease rather than inhibiting the consequences/symptoms (Aß, Aß oligomers or AD-like tau). In addition, by targeting a cause of AD, not only would Aß, Aß oligomers or AD-like tau be prevented but other products that might be involved in AD pathogenesis would also be inhibited.


Return to 123HelpMe.com