Transformation of Urban and Natural Landscape Essay

Transformation of Urban and Natural Landscape Essay

Length: 1272 words (3.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Earth is currently transitioning from a mostly rural to a mostly urban planet. In 2030 the urbanized areas will be nearly tripled compared to 2000 (Seto et al. 2012). The use of dark building materials, such as asphalt and concrete, leads to a lower albedo in urbanized areas than in natural environment (Brest 1987). It negatively affects climate and it might be more relevant in the near future. The substitution of rooftops’ membranes and pavements’ traditional materials with bright ones and a wise planning of the future urban sprawl can remedy the low urban albedo. Here we investigate the potential effect of the increase in albedo on the instantaneous change in radiative forcing in a sample of European cities. We find a distinct but surprising geographical variation of the potential. With Scandinavian cities being potentially more effective that north-central European ones. Our results highlight that the increase in albedo in European cities can contribute to reduce instantaneous radiative forcing (IRF) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) mostly depending on urban morphology.
The IPCC Working Group I Fourth Assessment Report reports that since pre-industrial times until 2005, Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) led to a decrease in RF of 0.2 [± 0.2] W m-2 due to an increase in Earth’s albedo (Salomon et al. 2007). The magnitude of the LULCC-induced decrease in RF is comparable to the effect of some anthropogenic long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (e.g., nitrous oxide). The increase in Earth’s albedo is mainly ascribable to deforestation and modification of land for agricultural use (Foster et al. 2007). However, the effect of the LULCC on RF embodies the contribution of urbanization since it is not trivial to isolate...

... middle of paper ...

.... 28). New York: International Geophysics Series (1981)
17. Pielke, R. A., Marland, G., Betts, R. A., Chase, T. N., Eastman, J. L., Niles, J. O., Niyogi, D. D. S., Running, S. W. The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. The Royal Society 360, 1705 –1719 (2002)
18. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor H.L. Miller (eds.) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA (2007)
19. Oleson, K. W., Bonan, G. B., Feddema, J. Effects of white roofs on urban temperature in a global climate model. Geophysical research letters, 37, L03701, doi:10.1029/2009GL042194 (2010)

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council and the Estidama Program Essay

- 1 Introduction “Estidama” is an Arabic word for sustainability. Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council’s (UPC) Estidama Program is the government’s initiative to integrate principles of sustainability into Abu Dhabi’s urban development and economic master plan. Bespoke to the region’s culture, climate and physical environment, Estimate is developed to be more than just a set of principles or a rating system. It is presented as a way of life in the Arab world that will encourage sustainable urban and economic growth, protect the natural environment, and preserve Abu Dhabi’s unique cultural identity and historical assets (Estimate, 2010)....   [tags: sustainability, United Arab Emirates]

Better Essays
2585 words (7.4 pages)

Urban Renewal: The History of City of Buffalo Essay

- After his completion of the Delaware Park and Parkway system with Calvert Vaux throughout Buffalo, New York, Frederick Law Olmsted declared Buffalo as “the best planned city, as to its streets, public places and grounds, in the United States, if not the world.” Inspired largely by the baroque styling of Paris, France, Olmstead wished to create a park within urban Buffalo but rather put the city of Buffalo in a park system. The parks were non-gated and easily accessible for all patrons creating an ever changing green space across an urban vista....   [tags: project, urban landscape, architectural]

Better Essays
2188 words (6.3 pages)

How Do Cities Develop And Grow Within The Production System Of Modern Capitalism?

- INTRODUCTION How do cities develop and grow within the production system of modern capitalism. What forces mark the external and internal organization of their economies. How is the intra-urban geography of production arranged, and how does it change through time. How is the labour of the citizenry mobilized over the urban system and deployed in productive work. What impacts does the economy have on the structure of urban life. Conversely, what influence does urban life have on the structure of local economic activity....   [tags: Urban area, City, Industry, Metropolitan area]

Better Essays
1303 words (3.7 pages)

The Features of Landscape Urbanism Essay example

- Landscape Urbanism is best equipped to assist Lyndon’s “multiplicity of cultures seeking at once to find their way in the present and to forge their place in the future” because it positions landscape “as the most relevant meduim for the production and representation of contemporary urbanism.” The interdisciplinary model it uses is one which positions landscape as the generator, rather than backdrop, of urban development. The public landscape infrastructure organizes and shapes urban development rather than the other way around....   [tags: urban]

Better Essays
712 words (2 pages)

Natural Landscape Essay

- The Industrial Revolution raised concerns about the natural landscape when broad social and economic changes also generated increasing pollution across England. Around the same time, ideas of naturalism (from French Philosophical writings) swept across Europe. They persuaded people to go back to nature’s simple ways. Enlightenment theories of Reason disseminated ideas of nature as teacher and guide. However, landscape painting in England was unimportant at that time, compared to Portraiture or History Painting (Gardner 2009, pp 793)....   [tags: Poetry, Painting]

Free Essays
859 words (2.5 pages)

Urban Sprawl vs the Sustainable City Essay

- Recently there have been many discussions about urban sprawl due to its negative impacts on society and the natural environment. However, looking at the aims of the sustainable city project it seems clear urban sprawl may be an obstacle Doubting this, i asked myself “to what measure is urban sprawl a problem to the aim of the sustainable city”. In this essay I will try to explain the aims of the sustainable city as well the process of urban sprawl and its limitations and relate how urban sprawl directly affects those objectives....   [tags: urban sprawl, natural environment]

Better Essays
858 words (2.5 pages)

Urban Parks Essay

- Like most Americans, I expect to find in every city, every town, even in every village in the country, an outdoor recreation area or what is usually called a park; and I am seldom disappointed. No matter how new and unfinished a town may be, or however old and poor, I know that it will contain, wedged in among the crowded blocks of buildings, a rectangular space with grass and trees and meandering paths and perhaps a bandstand or a flagpole. --John B. Jackson, “The Past and Future Park” in Denatured Visions   Urban parks are defined in their comparative and contrastive relationships to the urban environments surrounding them....   [tags: New Urban Landscape]

Better Essays
2599 words (7.4 pages)

Pattern of Urban Development along the Expressway Essay

- 3. LITERATURE STUDY 3.1. Historical context At the end of the 1950’s and during the 1960’s and 1970’s the idea of corridor development, both planned and unplanned, was actively studied and discussed among spatial planners, designers and scientists (e.g. by C.F.G. Whebell, George R. Collins, C. Doxiadis). Many of these practitioners and scholars also encountered the difficulty of visualising the dynamics of corridors and often referred to (earlier) schemes and designs of linear cities. A study on both the definition and visualisation of corridors in this time-period may contribute to the discussion on corridor development and urban networks....   [tags: corridor development, urban planning]

Better Essays
1702 words (4.9 pages)

Urban Transportation Essay

- Most people take the urban public transportation system for granted. It is used in every aspect of our daily lives: work, education, medical necessities, recreation, etc. It is also important for the transportation of goods and services, which aids the growth and maintenance of our economy. Urban public transportation is the critical component of our quality of life and economic stability. The MBTA, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, is Boston and Eastern Massachusetts’s major transportation service....   [tags: Urban Research ]

Better Essays
1041 words (3 pages)

Urban Deisgn Essay

- Urban design continues to exist in our everyday lives. The elegance of buildings and their architectural structure stand out in cities competing to show their uniqueness and radiance. Not every urban design can show off their styles. The buildings people pass by in every day urban areas manage to connect with people. The urban design has different forms; it can be either contemporary or futuristic. It is interesting to investigate about just how futuristic can a design be and how acceptable it can become to the public....   [tags: Urban Development ]

Better Essays
2320 words (6.6 pages)