Alternative terms for JIT manufacturing have been used. IBM used continuous-flow manufacturing (CFM), and demand-flow manufacturing (DFM), and Motorola 's choice name was short-cycle manufacturing (SCM). Still another alternative was mentioned by Goddard, who said that Toyota Production System is often mistakenly referred to as the Kanban System, and pointed out that Kanban is only one element of Just in Time production. The wide use of the term Just in Time manufacturing throughout the 1980s faded fast in the 1990s, the new term ‘lean manufacturing’ became a more common name.
The exact reason for Just in Time evolution in Japan is not clear, but there are four potential reasons that it could have been developed during Japan 's post-World War II rebuilding of industry. First, Japan 's lack of capitol made it difficult for Japanese industries to finance the big batch, large inventory type production methods common elsewhere. Second, Japan lacked space to build big factories filled with racks of inventory. Third, the Japanese islands were lacking in natural resources which were typically used to build products. Fourth, Japan had a high unemployment rate, which meant that making an efficient way to use labor was an obvious pathway to industrial success. Thus the Japanese thinned out their processes and they built smaller factories which only housed materials in the factory that were currently being worked on. In this way, i...
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...ee Scotland in 1998, a producer of made-to-order automated teller machines, which includes some of the same benefits while also focusing on Just on Time purchasing. In switching to JIT over a weekend in 1998, they eliminated buffer inventories, reduced inventory from 47 days to 5 days, reduced flow time from 15 days to 2 days with 60% of purchased parts arriving Just in Time, and the number of suppliers reduced from 480 to 165. It becomes necessary to find suppliers that are close by or can supply materials quickly with limited advance notice.
The final study is from Hewlett-Packard, which in itself provided four individual case studies from four H-P divisions during the mid-1980s. The four divisions, Greeley, Fort Collins, Computer Systems, and Vancouver, employed some but not all of the same measures. At the time about half of H-P 's 52 divisions had adopted JIT.
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