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    on the human soul. In this essay, I intend to give an explanation as to what the Epicurean view on the soul is, I will discuss their ideas concerning the soul and the justifications they give, before looking at some of the problems and questions that arise from them. I will then go on to conclude that the Epicurean account of the soul isn’t very satisfactory taking into account the difficulties that the theory gives rise to. Epicureans maintain the materialist view of the soul, they believe

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    first, I will state the relationship between the body and the soul in the Phaedo. Secondly, I will state how Plato’s argument for affinity support his view and last but not least the reason why a philosopher is unafraid of death. There are two kinds of existences, the visible and the invisible. The invisible existence always remains the same whereas the visible never does. The body is more like to the visible existence and the soul is invisible. Visible things are those we know that exist because

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    philosophical text, The Republic, Plato argues that justice can only be realized by the moderation of the soul, which he claims reflects as the moderation of the city. He engages in a debate, via the persona of Socrates, with Ademantus and Gaucon on the benefit, or lack thereof, for the man who leads a just life. I shall argue that this analogy reflecting the governing of forces in the soul and in city serves as a sufficient device in proving that justice is beneficial to those who believe in, and

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    The Human Consciousness, or The Soul In 1838 Charles Darwin wrote in his journal "Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity. More humble and I think truer to consider him created from animals". (Rachels, 1990) Daniel C. Dennett refers to Darwin's theory of evolution as a universal acid, a theory so powerful it seeps through every traditional concept and leaves behind a revolutionized world-view, resulting not only in a fundamental shift in the way in

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    W.E.B. DuBois' The Souls of Black Folk W.E.B. DuBois, in The Souls of Black Folk describes the very poignant image of a veil between the blacks and the whites in his society. He constructs the concept of a double-consciousness, wherein a black person has two identities as two completely separate individuals, in order to demonstrate the fallacy of these opinions. J.S. Mill also describes a certain fallacy in his own freedom of thought, a general conception of individuals that allows them to accept

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    the body and the soul would disagree with this as he believed in the idea that the soul is indeed distinct from the body. He stated that the soul was capable of knowledge as it was immortal and as such had experienced the forms during its time spent in the , 'world of the forms ' before it was incarnated our mortal bodies. Plato goes so far as to use the term , 'imprisoned ' in his book phaedo when describing the nature of our soul in the body; he states that the goal of our soul is to reach the

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    eternity. What is particular about Dante's God is that He consigns sinners to their particular circle in Hell according to an immutable tariff of offences. No attention is paid to mitigating circumstances, or the idea of doing justice to the individual soul before the Divine Court. Hell, in short, was made on exactly the lines that the present Home Secretary would wish to impose on our present sentencing system. How do we reconcile the enjoyment of a great poem with what must seem, to many of us today

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    is very ambiguous. Shields first breaks down that not all living beings have the same capacity, which coincides with Aristotle's views. (Shields pg. 272).“Being alive” and “being ensouled” are co-extensive. Shields agrees that the existence of the soul is hardly controversial. (Shields 272) By giving an example of Prince Charles of Wales, he describes an inanimate object vs an animate. The properties associated with being alive are clearly defined within Aristotle's view. Next, Shields compares being

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    For Plato, the human soul is divided into three parts which have to function together in harmony. Reason, spirit, and appetite are together the soul. When an individual is unable to control one of these parts, chaos follows. In fact, Plato describes the soul as a charioteer pulled by two horses, where the charioteer is the reason and knows what he wants, but he needs the two horses to accomplish it. One horse is the spirit, which can be easily directed because it responds well. However, the other

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    Plato believed that the body and the soul were two separate entities, the body being mortal and the soul being immortal. In Plato’s phaedo, this is further explained by Socrates. He claims that by living a philosophical life, we are able to eventually free the soul from the body and its needs. If we have not yield to our bodily needs, we should not fear death, since it can than permanently detach the soul from the body. The most convincing argument for the immortality of the body is the theory of

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