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    State of Research on the "Snowball Earth Hypothesis" The "Snowball Earth Hypothesis" also known as the "Varangia glaciation" is a hypothesis presented in 2001 by Geologist Paul Hoffman. (Wikipedia, 2002) The hypothesis purposes that 540 million years ago during the Neoproterozic, a meter thick of ice covered the oceans and glaciers the continents for 100 million years. Albedo; when ice and snow reflect solar radiation into space, in absents of greenhouse gases, which don't exist within

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    planet was covered by glacial ice under long periods during neoproterozoic is today an acceptable but still debated hypothesis, and there is some paper against the snowball earth. According to Allen (2008) there is evidence that indicates some ice-free oceans and thereby contradict that the whole planet was covered by glacial ice. The snowball earth can be according to Hoffman (1998) a reason for a biological productivity collapse in surface ocean. Hoffman (1998) presents evidence that support that reason

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    A most recent inquiry into climatic change during the ice age and it's possibility of reoccurring is the Snowball Earth Hypothesis advanced by Paul Hoffman of Harvard University. Snowball Earth Suggest that before the Ice age, continents ice free at the poles enhanced the reabsorption of carbon dioxide through erosion of silicate minerals, reducing the greenhouse effect making the earth colder until it reached a runaway point. This effect is Hoffman calls albedo, when the atmosphere becomes so cold

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    Snowball

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    establish a perfect community, a “society of animals set free from hunger and the whip, all equal, each working according to his capacity, the strong protecting the weak” (60). The animals share a sense of uniformity; however, after the exile of Snowball, different ideologies develop, as is demonstrated by the altering of the seven commandments, which constitute a remarkably different sense of equality. Unlike under the domination of Napoleon, all animals once had a tightly woven relationship that

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    he created a book with many different qualities. Animal Farm is an allegory, fable, and a satire. He made the characters in the novel relate to real people and events in history. Examples such allegory would be Animalism compared with Communism, Snowball compared with Leon Trotsky, and Napoleon compared to Joseph Stalin. Animalism in many ways does symbolize Communism. Animalism for the animals would be a perfect land, no rich, no poor, and everyone is equal. They all would own the same amount of

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    soon and everyone should be preparing for the revolution. According to the book he died of old age but in the movie he was hit by a bullet from Mr. Jones’s shotgun causing Old Major to fall out of the hay loft and break his neck. Later Napoleon and Snowball come to prepare the animals for the coming revolution. Jones was a drunk and his workers did not always feed the animals regularly so one night Jones to the men out for drinks and they did not return for three days, and when he did return he still

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    He was an ideologist who dreamed up a wonderful government where all the animals were equal and the humans, or the czars, were pushed out. Unfortunately his dream would never materialize. Then we are left with his predecessors. The first is Snowball. Snowball believed one hundred percent in Old Majors ideals. He wanted all the things Old Major wanted, such as the welfare of the animals. In the Russian Revolution his counterpart would be Trotsky. Trotsky believed and wanted the same things as Lenin

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    Animal Farm

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    he says,"All men are enemies. All animals are comrades" (Orwell 31). The two main leader pigs, Napoleon and Snowball both honor Major’s beliefs but want to achieve the goals in different ways. Napoleon focuses on the advantages he can gain for himself; Snowball wants to help all the animals of the farm. These different paths of power start to cause division on the farm. In Chapter 5, Snowball finally gives up and runs away from the farm, leaving Napoleon the leader and motivator of the newly named

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    Stalin’s Five Year Plan, and their use and abuse of authority. When Lenin died in 1924, a struggle for power began between Trotsky (Snowball) and Stalin (Napoleon). Trotsky was a brilliant individual, but Stalin was just a simple person whose power was based on allegiances with other members of the communist party rather than on ideas. This is contrary to how Snowball was the more intelligent one of the two and all the sheep and pigs were loyal to Napoleon. Trotsky believed in Russia’s trying to spread

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    Revolution. First of all the characters of the farm have a special role in Russian Revolution. The farm itself represents Russia, with its poor conditions and non-responsible leaders. Napoleon, the evil pig who plays Joseph Stalin in real life. Snowball, the leader who gives aid and information to Napoleon and plays the character Lenin on the Russian revolution...

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    Animal Farm - Essay

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    The book Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is a satire the Russian Revolution from 1917 to 1953. Its intent was to criticize Stalin and Stalinism. It is an allegorical fable, in which animals resemble the Bolshevik party members. Napoleon and Snowball (the leading pigs) represent Stalin and Lenin respectively. After a speech from Old Major (an old pig, which stated Man was evil and in the future all animals would be free), the animals start a Revolution on Manor Farm. They overthrow the owner;

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    character in life’s drama. Fifth Business, told in the form of a letter to the schoolmaster, begins with a snowball that young Percy Boyd Staunton throws at Ramsay. The stone-in-a-snowball misses Ramsay but hits Mary Dempster, causing the premature birth of Paul Dempster. Paul grows up to be Magnus Eisengrim, a mysterious and graceful magician. Tormented by his guilt of avoiding the snowball, Ramsay makes Mary his personal saint and is weighed down by his conscience until Mary’s eventual death in

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    Orwell's Animal Farm

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    deciding factor in Napoleon's rise to power. Snowball, the other pig who shared the position of leadership with him did not agree with him on many counts. However, he was a good speaker and could easily gain the animals support with his speeches alone. So, Napoleon trained the sheep to break into their favorite slogan of ' four legs good, two legs bad' at vital parts of Snowball's speeches making hard to convey his points to them. Because of this, Snowball would not gain much support which was exactly

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    prominent in the book as during the Russian Revolution. In the book, education is mentioned when Snowball finds old spelling books, once belonging to Mr. Jones. He begins to teach himself, followed by the other pigs, and finally he helps the other animals to read and write. Some of the not so intelligent animals find this quite taxing, whereas the pigs– being the most intelligent, learn the fastest. Snowball is the most interested in educating the animals, and the well being of the other animals on the

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    really notice this. Because he is in such a hunger for power and wealth he doesn't want to share it. This is why he has his own partner, Snowball, banned from the farm. This not only gave him more power but it also ensured him the support of the other animals. They believed that he was trying to save them from being exposed by a spy (Snowball) when the real spy was in fact Napoleon . In the story The Pearl, a man and his family who were extremely poor are barely surviving with what

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    Fifth Business by Robertson Davies

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    Fifth Business by Robertson Davies In the essay Fifth Business, each of the main character traits is developed more and more clearly throughout their lives. Childhood characteristics are evident in the characters of Dustan Ramsay, Percy Boyd Stauton and Paul Dempster. All paranoia, and memories of the town of Deptford are resurfaced in each of them after they all had left to start lives on their own. It was childhood that scared or marked them as people and the fact that parents often have influence

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    is believable. When Major dies the animals’ end up rebelling against their human master managing to overthrow him. After the rebellion the most outspoken pig, Napoleon, manages to become the leader along with Snowball, who is the most eloquent pig. Napoleon figures out a way to get Snowball kicked out of the farm so he can be the leader himself. Napoleon is a back-stabbing traitor. He becomes just like the humans and dominates over the other animals. Napoleon breaks the laws but since he has the

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    Break Free

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    A year ago... Her father had always told her that Monte Vista Heralds was one of the most prestigious schools in California, mainly because it's one place where rich and snobby kids from across the world are thrown in by their parents by the time they reach their mature stage. Some say that most of students of Ivy League schools began their journey here, earning Monte Vista another gratified reputation. As also said in their motto, disciplinaire s'anime, it is the school where you need to impress

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    Free Animal Farm Essay

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    names were Snowball and Napoleon, whose main goal was to have nothing to do with humans, and bring communism into their society. "Napoleon was a large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only one of those on the farm. He was not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way" (Ch.2, P. 25). "Snowball was a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive but did not have the character depth that Napoleon did" (Ch.2, Pgs. 24-25.) Snowball was the

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    Religion, Myth, and Magic in Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business Interwoven with light and shadows, Robertson Davies’s Fifth Business is penetrated with fantastical elements that rub uneasily against feelings of guilt. A snowball thrown by young "Boy" Staunton misses Dunstan and hits Mary Dempster, causing the premature birth of Paul and the insanity of Mary. Guilt ensues and threatens to envelop Dunstable, Dunny, and Dunstan. One is his name by birth; the other a pet name; and the third, his

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