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Free Signal transduction Essays and Papers

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    Signals are an object present in everyday life. Signals don’t just come in forms of traffic lights and signs. Signals happen on the molecular level every second. Signals can tell organisms’ cells to grow, feed, expel waste, move, undergo mitosis, or even die. These signals mystified people for the longest time. However, Earl W. Sutherland’s experiment gave humanity clarity on the matter (Urry 109). Sutherland was investigating the process by which the hormone epinephrine, or adrenaline, causes the

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    for binding sites for signal molecules and G-proteins. When a signal molecule from the extracellular fluid attaches to the signal-binding site it activates the G-protein-linked receptor by changing its shape. When this happens, the G-protein, loosely attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cellular membrane, attaches to its binding side on the receptor protein. The inactive G-protein becomes activated when GDP is displaced by GTP, a molecule similar to ATP. When the signal molecule is released

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    Receptor Dimers: Heterodimers and Homodimers. Receptor dimers are receptor complexes formed by two covalently or non-covalently bound receptor subunits. Receptor dimerisation regulates signal transduction in various receptors or alter pharmacology. The Enzyme linked transmembrane receptors (they dimerise only when bound by a ligand to cause activation via autophosphorylation), The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (they form constitutive dimers to mask the E.R retention motif on the C- terminal)

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    or some other regulatory molecule. This can only be done through the presence of the appropriate signal required. G proteins are proteins that bind guanine nucleotides, either DTP or GDP. In order for their release a certain signal is mandatory. The mechanism for transmitting signals across the plasma membrane by G proteins is of ancient evolutionary origin that is highly conserved. The transduction is done through G protein coupled receptors. Within a G protein coupled receptor, the amino terminus

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    Drug Discovery Model

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    Historically, pharmaceuticals were discovered by mere happenstance. Traditionally plants were the major source of drug therapies. Different parts of the plant (e.g. roots, rhizome, leaves, seeds, flowers) would be used to make crude extracts. It wasn’t until 1928 when Dr. Alexander Fleming discovered the antibiotic properties of Penicillium notatum that the use of metabolites from microbes would bring about a huge change in the drug discovery model (Rubin, R.P., 2007). In more recent times, the identification

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    A critical role for persistent inflammation in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases with diverse clinical manifestations such as the immune mediated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)/multiple sclerosis (MS) or the neurodegenerative Alzheimer’s disease (AD)/Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently well recognized 1-5 . Sustained or unregulated activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-) is integral to the persistence of inflammation 6, 7. The term NF-B includes five structurally

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    My research interests lie in cell signaling, and more broadly, in sensory processing. My interest in cell signaling has evolved from early studies I conducted on the human A1 adenosine receptor (hA1AR). In this first exposure to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, I aided in determining those amino acid residues within the fifth transmembrane-spanning region of the hA1AR that were accessible from the ligand-binding crevice using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (SCAM). Utilization

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    Chronic Myeloid leukemia (CML) is a blood and bone marrow disease that slowly progresses. The disease usually occurs in middle aged or older individuals and rarely occurs in children. In CML, an unusually high number of blood stem cells become granulocytes. These granulocytes, also called leukemia cells are irregular in shape and do not develop into healthy white blood cells. Eventually, they concentrate in the blood leaving no room for healthy cells which may lead to infection, anemia, or bleeding

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    HER -2 GENE FR BC

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    Anti EGFR/ HER2 Monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab is humanized anti HER2 monoclonal antibody, administered to patients only after determining the status of HER2 (i.e. gene amplification) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)[23]. IHC is a special staining process that uses monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antibodies that bind to the protein. Antibody after being attached to HER2 protein causes a color change in tissue sample. Darker staining indicates more

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    Oncogenes Essay

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    Oncogenes: Role in Development of Cancer An oncogene is a gene whose main function is as a potential to cause cancer in the cell cycle. A normal cell is transformed into a cancerous cell when the cell’s proteins involved in regulating cell division are no longer able to facilitate progression from one stage of the cell cycle to the next. Cancer cells do not lack function but reproduce at an abnormally high rate bypassing the boundaries of the cell cycle. Cancer cells, with the function brought on

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