Free Reinforcement Essays and Papers

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    to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously neutral stimulus. Manipulating reflexes does this. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the likelihood of a behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforcement or punishment. Operant conditioning deals with more cognitive thought process. These two forms of learning have similarities and differences. Their similarities are that they both produce basic phenomena. One such phenomenon is acquisition. Both

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    the environment will have no affect on the probability of the behaviour being repeated. Second type he says is reinforcer’s, whereby the response from the environment can affect the probability of the behaviour being repeated depending on the reinforcement being a positive or negative one, through this behaviours can be learned or unlearned. Third type Skinner mentioned was responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated, therefore punishment is weakening

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    behavior. A parent raising a child deals with a lot of operant conditioning if they know it or not. A parent is always trying to teach a child right and wrong. From operant conditioning they can teach the child how to use reinforcement and punishment. Positive reinforcement is any stimulus that, when added to a situation increases the probability that a given behavior will occur. If a child is doing well at school and brings home a report card that is all A’s the parent may reward the child. The

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    through positive or negative reinforcement, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior” (Dictionary.com, 2014). Skinner in his theory testing used a box that he referred to as the Skinner box, which was similar to the puzzle box that Thorndike used. Skinner designed a box as a chamber that consists of a key or a bar that pigeons can press to achieve food and/or water; this is considered as reinforcement. Skinner then added a machine

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    treatment for these people despite the consequences of their inactions. Evil behavior can be explained better by avoiding the fundamental attribution error of assuming that people commit evil acts because they are evil. Through the concepts of Reinforcement and Stereotype and the studies by Milgram and Bandura et al., psychology has helped explain, in a reasonable way, how a horrendous event such as the Tuskeegee Syphilis Study may have occurred. Although these explanations do not remove any personal

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    to keep their children well disciplined along with giving them the opportunity to develop socially and morally. But how is it possible to approach this task correctly? Using proven methods of discipline through reasoning, positive and negative reinforcement, and observational learning one can effectively discipline their children without risking damage to the child’s social and moral development. Research has shown that using reasoning as a method for discipline more often helps develop a child’s

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    these outcomes are motivating to the animal causing an increase in behaviour. From this the idea of reinforcement was developed. Positive reinforcement occurs when a behaviour is rewarded increasing the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated, while negative reinforcement occurs when an aversive stimuli is removed when an action is performed (Bouton, 2007). At this point in history reinforcement was seen to happen between a behaviour and a stimul...

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    B.F. Skinner

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    Skinner’s operant conditioning came from Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect Theory, which states that “behavior is determined by the consequences associated with the good or bad behavior.” Skinner associated the term reinforcement with Operant Conditioning because he believed that reinforcement would strengthen a behavior. (McLeod, 2007) Skinner came up with this theory through his various experiments with animals. One of Skinner’s famous experiments that tested his Operant conditioning theory was the

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    Operant Conditioning

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    conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e.g., Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforcers

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    environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated (McLeod, 2015). Skinner believed that most human behaviors are learned through operant conditioning. The significance of operant conditioning is the immediate reinforcement of a response. Reinforcement changes the frequency of a response or the probability that a response will occur. Shaping Shaping is a procedure in which the experimenter or the environment first rewards gross approximations of the behavior, then closer approximations

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