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    The Uses of Reinforcement Schedules

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    the uses of reinforcement schedules Salkind and Neil (2008) defined reinforcers as the first class of consequences, which, consists of events that increase the future probability of a behavior they immediately follow. These include events that strengthen behaviors when they are presented following the behavior, such as food, attention, or social praise. Reinforcement encourages some responses, discourages others and even creates new responses. According to Gross (2010) reinforcement schedules

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    discussing the information I have learned from the article “From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors”, by Ellen A. Sigler and Shirley Aamidor. The authors stress the importance of positive reinforcement. The belief is that teachers and adults should be rewarding appropriate behaviors and ignoring the inappropriate ones. The authors’ beliefs are expressed by answering the following questions: Why use positive reinforcement?, Are we judging children’s behaviors?, Why do children behave in a certain

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    In this week’s reading assignment we learned about the four types of reinforcement used in behavior modification. The four types are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment. Positive reinforcement involves the use of some type of positive consequence given after a desired behavior is displayed. Negative reinforcement involves removing something negative after a desired behavior is displayed. Extinction is designed to weaken a behavior by either giving no consequence

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    Time-out from Positive Reinforcement: A Review of the Literature Time-out from positive reinforcement is one of the most widely used interventions employed to discipline problem behaviours in children; however it can be beneficial in a variety of areas (Everett, 2010). The purpose of this paper is to review a variety of literature on time-out from positive reinforcement; including what it is, when it is appropriate to use it, effectiveness factors and ethical issues. Definition There is no singular

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    is seen in both the negative and positive experiences. Reinforcement is an action that follows a specific behaviour, increasing the likelihood of that particular behaviour being repeated in the future (Potgieter, 2013). With regards to positive reinforcement, Thorndike’s Law of Effect proposes that one is more likely to repeat a specific behaviour when it results in something positive (eg: a reward) (Potgieter, 2013). Positive reinforcement consists of two aspects namely; intrinsic and extrinsic

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    Reinforcement and punishment shape the way we perceive the world around us and are huge components to how we learn. Therefore, it is vital to understand the difference and how they apply to different situations. Before comparing the two categories, we must grasp a better understanding of each of them separately. Reinforcement can be defined as anything that increases the possibility that a response will occur. It will always either strengthen or increase a behavior. Reinforcement can further

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    based on existed research on the use of positive and negative reinforcement in any educational settings. It also talks about how the use of these reinforcements might have an impact on the behavior of the students instead of the used of punishment. It also talks about why many educators don’t use reinforcement in their classrooms, and why reinforcements are misunderstood or why some educators think that they don’t work. Also how reinforcement can be a motivation for students to be successful in their

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    Question 1. Briefly describe operant conditioning and classical/Pavlovian conditioning. (6 points) Operant conditioning is a theory that evaluates the behavior of individuals as was founded by psychologist B.F. Skinner. The definition for operant conditioning according to the Merriam Webster dictionary is: “conditioning in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus.” In other words, it is learning that is based on the

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    Partial Reinforcement Schedules and Exercise

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    schedules of partial reinforcement. In order to save pellets, Skinner cut back on the amount and frequency that he fed the rats. Instead of the rats' operant behavior decreasing, it remained stable even with the change in feeding schedule (Boeree, 1998). This "accident" led Skinner to his discovery of the four schedules of partial reinforcement: fixed ratio (FR), variable ratio (VR), fixed interval (FI), and variable interval (VI). Skinner discovered that giving partial reinforcement with these schedules

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    According to Piazza, “Negative reinforcement plays a significant role in the maintenance of problematic behavior (Iwata, 1987)” (Piazza, 1997). In a study done by Wahab in the article “Managing Learners’ Behaviors in Classroom through Negative Reinforcement Approaches” “it examine discipline management in classroom from the aspect of the types of disruptive behaviors among students in classroom, the practice of teachers’ negative reinforcement approach in managing and tackling these disruptive behaviors

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