Free Refutation Essays and Papers

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    Refutation to a Bias Suggestion "Some people suggest that the Bible, being a collection of texts written long ago by persons much different from ourselves, does not have much (or any) significance for modern people." The suggestion that the Bible is invalid simply due to its authors and era is absurd and bias. This statement is supported by God and all modern day believers. Almost any Christian you confront with this statement would most likely give you a blank stare. However, it is mainly non-

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    Reflections on Nagarjuna’s The Refutation of Criticism (Vigrahavyavartani) ABSTRACT: In verse nine of the Vigrahavyavartani, Nagarjuna gives a defense of his skepticism by insisting that he makes no proposition (pratijna) concerning the nature of reality. B. K. Matilal has argued that this position is not an untenable one for a skeptic to hold, using as an explanatory model Searle’s distinction between a propositional and an illocutionary negation. The argument runs that Nagarjuna does not refute

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    Romesh Gunesekera's Ranvali: A Refutation of Conventional Characterization "Ranvali" serves as a personal reminder. It conveys sadness and regret with the narrator's realization only years after her father had died that she had been mistaken about certain aspects of him and that after this realization, she was unable to try to improve their relationship because he was no longer alive. The characterization of her father is essential in carrying across this sadness and regret because his character

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    A Feminist Refutation of the Deconstruction of The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle As Captain Jaggery’s ostensibly moral imperative from Avi’s The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle implores, we the readers “protect the natural order of the world” through our disbelief in our heroine as reflected in our intuitive reflection upon and deconstructionalist critique of the book.    In fact, it is likely that our disbelief of Charlotte’s story is as much a comment on our attitudes towards gender

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    In Darryl Pinckney’s discerning critical essay, “Richard Wright: The Unnatural History of a Native Son,” Pinckney states that all of Wright’s books contain the themes of violence, inhumanity, rage, and fear. Wright writes about these themes because he expresses, in his books, his convictions about his own struggles with racial oppression, the “brutal realities of his early life.” Pinckney claims that Wright’s works are unique for Wright’s works did not attempt to incite whites to acknowledge blacks

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    Hegel and Kant on the Ontological Argument

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    Hegel and Kant on the Ontological Argument ABSTRACT: I intend to present Kant's refutation of the ontological argument as confronted by Hegel's critique of Kant's refutation. The ontological argument can be exposed in a syllogistic way: everything I conceive as belonging clearly and distinctly to the nature or essence of something can be asserted as true of something. I perceive clearly and distinctly that existence belongs to the nature or essence of a perfect being; therefore, existence can

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    ABSTRACT: Given that any society is endowed not only with a set of institutions but also with the particular pattern of self-reflection and self-description, postmodernity should be viewed as an epoch representing the climax of modernity and its self-refutation. Parting with traditional society, modernity represents the triumph of power-knowledge, the divorce between spheres of culture, the global social relations, the new institutions, the change in the understanding of space-time relations, the cult

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    and primarily is derived from it. Locke begins his philosophical examination of knowledge by trying to disprove the claim that some of our knowledge is original, in the sense that it comes from ideas which are innate or inborn. Locke's attempted refutation depends on a questionable assumption: if an individual has an idea, then that individual would understand it and assent to its content. Also, Locke believed in religious freedom and the separation of church and state. He thought that God established

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    interact. They just seem to be doing so because God created them with a pre-established harmony. The constant divine mediation was, thus, reduced to a one-time act of creation. This was considered to be both a logical result of occasionalism and its refutation by a reductio ad absurdum argument. But, was the fourth substance necessary at all? Could not an explanation to all the known facts be provided without it? The ratio between the number of known facts (the outcomes of observations) and the number

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    as easily be describing any wolf and any “here” without an adequate fit or representation of sensory experience. These are Bradley’s concerns in The Principles of Logic (PL)1, and since his proposed solutions to these problems were intended as a refutation of Hume’s empiricist psychology and Mill’s doctrine of inference, and since they shaped if not antedated many of Russell’s achievements in logical theory, they call for careful attention.2 I must note, however, that Bradley is particularly frustrating

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