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    Plutonium

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    Plutonium Plutonium is a radioactive metallic element. Although it is occasionally found in nature, mostly all of our plutonium is produced artificially in a lab. The official chemical symbol for plutonium is Pu, coming from its first and third letters. Its atomic number is ninety-four. Plutonium is able to maintain its solid state until very high temperatures, melting at six hundred and forty degrees Celsius, and boiling at three thousand four hundred and sixty degrees. The density of Plutonium

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    Managing Plutonium Stockpiles

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    the safest and most effective way to deal with its large stockpile of Plutonium. First, it is important to understand what Plutonium is. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA plutonium is considered a man-made, radioactive metal. However, scientists have also found small quantities of what appears to be naturally-occurring plutonium produced under “highly unusual geologic circumstances.” (3). Plutonium has an Atomic Number 94, and is most commonly found as radioisotopes

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    of discovery in 1941 Plutonium has been both beneficial and detrimental to the human race. The isotope most detrimental is Plutonium-239 which has been used to create nuclear weapons. Plutonium-239 was used in the atomic bomb codenamed “Fat Man” that was dropped on Nagasaki during World War II. Normally a nuclear bomb uses 10 kilograms of Plutonium, but “Fat Man” used even less and still caused a lot of destruction. To put it in perspective again just 1 kilogram of Plutonium-239 causes an explosion

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    Plutonium, Our Country's Only Feasible Solution Abstract: Should we begin to manufacture one of the most destructive and infamous substances on the face on the Earth once again? The engineers say yes, but the public says no. The United States stopped making this element with the ban on manufacturing nuclear weapons. But with the continuing problem with our ever diminishing energy sources, some want us to begin using more nuclear energy and less energy from natural resources. This paper is going

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    finishing of the plant, Oppenheimer feared that they would need to find an alternate source of radioactive material, due to not being able to separate enough Uranium 235 in time. They attempted to use plutonium which is nearly, if not more radioactive than Uranium, but they quickly depleted most of their Plutonium deposits, and in turn had to switch back to refining and separating Uranium. There was also another plant for producing radioactive materials, known as K-25. K-25 is mostly forgotten about due

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    large casks at the plants where it was used with plans in the works for a common location to store the waste for long periods of time. Long term storage is not the only option, technology exists to take this spent nuclear fuel and remove the unused plutonium and uranium from the waste products to create more fuel. The remaining waste would be stored in a long term facility as discussed above. This process is highly controversial due to economic and safety concerns, but could increase the capacity of

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    The fuel remains in the reactor until the fission reaction cannot continue anymore. Some of the fission products are various isotopes of barium, strontium, cesium, and iodine. The spent fuel also contains plutonium and uranium that was not used up. The fission products and the left over plutonium and uranium remain within the spent fuel when it is removed from the reactor and are called high level waste as they are extremely hot and very radioactive. (Nuclearinfo.net.) This is the point where science

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    Most of us would like to think that history is based on civil negotiations between representatives from around the world. The fact is, war has always been a disease that spreads not only in the battle field, and infects all those who come in contact with it. In the case of nuclear weapons, the United States, like many countries, raced to produce some of the most deadly weapons. Kristen Iversen shares her experiences surrounding a nuclear production facility in Boulder Colorado called Rocky Flats

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    The presence of radionuclides and heavy metals in our surroundings has become the most serious environmental concern. These contaminants or pollutants fail to degrade on their own over time and must be removed or neutralized. Microorganisms act as natural catalysts in the process of transformation of toxic metals into non-toxic ones. This is why there is an increased interest in the understanding of microbiological processes which help in remediation of these toxic wastes from the environment (Francis

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    The atomic bomb (also known as the atom bomb, A-bomb , or nuclear bomb) has a destructive power created by the fission of either uranium or plutonium. But, not any isotope of uranium can be used. Only U235 is used in the production of an atom bomb. U235 is very hard to come by due to the fact that it is only present within 0.7% of all natural uranium. In order to separate the U235 isotope from natural uranium a process of enrichment is used. The uranium must be enriched to 90% for actual use

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    Hanford Nuclear Site

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    The Hanford Nuclear Site, a highly radioactive place that contains two-thirds of the country's waste by volume. The site is known for making plutonium for the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in World War 2. We will be covering the activities within the Hanford Nuclear Site from the beginning to present and the involvement of the United States government. The nuclear site has many mysteries and unanswered questions but this is what is available. The activities within the Hanford Nuclear Site is a mystery

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    electricity to help mankind. Breeder reactors bring forth modern technology at its finest; mankind is becoming more and more creative to make reactors which can be optimally efficient and cost-effective at the same time. By being able to harness plutonium-239 with a blanket of uranium and start chain reactions consistently, breeders seem to be a viable option to help produce electricity for a bigger population. However, maintenance and operation costs are big problems to deal with, and these are some

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    Scientists in several countries performed experiments in connection with nuclear reactors and fission weapons during World War II, but no country other than the United States carried its projects as far as separating uranium-235 or manufacturing plutonium-239. The Axis powers By the time the war began on Sept. 1, 1939, Germany had a special office for the military application of nuclear fission; chain-reaction experiments with uranium and carbon were being planned, and ways of separating the uranium

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    The A Bomb

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    The Atomic Bomb The first atomic bomb was tested on July 16,1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico and was developed, constructed and tested by the Manhattan Project. The new device represented a completely new type of explosion. All explosives before this time got their power for the rapid burning of a chemical compound like gunpowder. These bombs could only do a limited amount of damage. This new group of nuclear explosives involved getting energy sources from within the nucleus of the atom. The Atomic

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    Nuclear Terrorism Not Likely

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    that the Cold War is over, both the United States and the former Soviet Republics are dismantling their nuclear arsenals. Because of a less than reliable system of nuclear security in Russia, the chances of terrorists group obtaining uranium or plutonium from Russia have increased. However, in order to assemble the nuclear weapon, the group would need both knowledge and all the necessary materials. Thus, a nuclear threat by a terrorist is possible but not very likely. Nuclear Terrorism:

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    Atomic Bomb

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    Just before the beginning of World War II, Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly after that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bomb before the

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    Nuclear Disarmament

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    this lack of security has raised the world’s awareness on attempting to control nuclear stockpiles. Also, there are concerns of nuclear power plants producing uranium and plutonium as a by-product; the two fuels are used in producing nuclear devices. Although these nuclear power plants were never meant to produce uranium and plutonium, countries have left it available to civilians for research and testing.1 Nuclear bombs can be a result of this experimenting, which is why some form of disarmament and

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    An Asian Nuclear Cooperation Regime

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    Japan. Japan’s civilian reprocessing proposals, with plans to move to fast-breeder reactors, has made some states in the Asia-Pacific region wary of their intentions. After all, reprocessing of spent fuel involves the separation of plutonium, and even reactor-grade plutonium (involving greater concentrations of Pu-240 and Pu-242) is suitable for weapons production in sufficient quantities. Japan’s reprocessing program has caused other states in the region to begin to raise the issue of developing their

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    The Nuclear Terrorism Threat and the Aum Shinrikyo Cult Until the mid seventies, the term nuclear terror was used predominately to describe the threat of a nuclear attack by the Soviet Union. Since then, however, it has taken on a whole new meaning which many security experts feel poses a more serious threat to national security. In the past few decades, formal terrorist organizations have exploded planes out of the sky, bombed US military and diplomatic facilities abroad, and with the World

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    Artificial nuclear reactions can be either classified as nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. Nuclear fission involves lighter colliding particles making the heavy parent more unstable and it fragments or fissions into smaller nuclei and other particles. This was first discovered when the German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman made an amazing discovery in 1983. They found that when U-235 was bombarded with neutrons, sometimes smaller nuclei were produced. These smaller nuclei were approximately

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