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    The Pathogenesis of Down’s Syndrome

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    The Pathogenesis of Down’s Syndrome Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of mental retardation in the United States. It occurs with a frequency of one in 700 live births. The disease is caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21 as a result of chromosomal mutation (95% nondisjunction, 5% translocation) during cell division, leading to a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the normal number, 46. There are no individuals with the clinical signs of DS who do not have at least

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    Cloning

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    what is cloning, and what is a clone. A clone is an organism derived asexually from a single individual by cuttings, bulbs, tubers, fission, or parthenogenesis reproduction ("Cloning", 1997). Pathogenesis reproduction is the development of an organism from an unfertilized ovum, seed or spore ("Pathogenesis", 1997). So cloning, biologically speaking, is any process in which production of a clone is successful. Therefore, the biological term cloning is the production of a genetically identical duplicate

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    Gene Therapy

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    Hopefully, future research on gene transfer and tissue-specific gene expression will resolve these issues in the majority of gene therapy protocols. Other important considerations for a gene therapy strategy include a sufficient understanding of the pathogenesis of the targeted disorder, potential side effects of the gene therapy treatment, and understanding of the target cells to receive the gene therapy. Gene transfer vector is the mechanism by which the gene is transferred into a cell. Currently

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    health paradigm or health promoting research. The central point of reference is the discussion of the decisive substantiation of the work of medical sociologist, Aaron Antonovsky; his approach to salutogenesis is opposed to the usual approach of pathogenesis. Here, emphasis is put on "Sense of Coherence" (SoC). It will be shown that, in contrast to Antonovsky's original intention, the relation to the natural sciences and scientific medicine is sufficient to substantiate neither his central arguments

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    Rasmussens Encephalitis

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    seizures, hemiparesis, and dementia normally in the first ten years of life. The seizures that were caused by Rasmussen’s encephalitis were unstoppable by normal anti-seizure drugs used conventionally. What the worst part of the disease was that the pathogenesis for it were not known and even worse was how it developed. The first clue was delivered when Rogers and Gahring were trying to register the distribution of the glutamate receptors using antibodies, that tag on to the receptor itself. The proteins

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    Pathogenesis of Malaria

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    Plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal of the species. The parasitic infection of P. falciparum can lead to many negative effects including death. This paper will explore the ways in which the disease in contracted, the risk factors as well as the pathogenesis of the parasite and ultimately the potential treatment options based on the progression of the disease process. Causative Agent, Mode of Transmission and Risk Factors P. falciparum is a protozoan parasite that once it has infected its human host

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    Peritonitis Pathogenesis

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    Peritonitis indicates an inflammatory response of the peritoneal layer in the abdominal cavity that arises due to an activation of local mediator cascades by different stimuli. Depending on the pathogenesis, it can be classified into three specific types: primary, secondary or tertiary peritonitis, each representing a distinct clinical entity. Peritoneal mesothelial cells are not inactive cells, but play essential roles in peritoneal homeostasis and synthesize a plethora of cytokines, growth factors

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    Pathogenesis and Immune response Mycobacteria tuberculosis is disease-causing bacterium that is released by infected patients into the air. There are chances that the bacterium will be inhaled by another person and enter into that person’s alveoli. Once it is there, it becomes a pathogen and starts its invasion. Pathogenesis is a term used to describe the process of invasion and development of pathogen to cause disease. At start, M. tuberculosis bacteria are ingested by phagocytic cells in the alveoli

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    chronic mental illness, involving both psychotic and negative symptoms, with an unknown cause. Genetics may play a significant role in pathogenesis. Twin studies have provided data relating to heritability rates with a 48% chance of development for monozygotic twins, and a 17% chance for dizygotic twins. Neurodevelopmental theories of schizophrenia pathogenesis include complications during the prenatal period of development manifesting normally in the pubescent brain, such as teratogenic effects

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    Pathogenesis Of Sclerosis

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    In 2014, Denton claimed the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is a complex disease and remains not completely understood. “Immune activation, vascular damage, and excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix with deposition of increased amounts of structurally normal collagen are all known to be important in the development of this illness” (Denton, 2014). Scleroderma is an uncommon chronic autoimmune connective tissue disease that is characterized as one of the rheumatic diseases because

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    Pathogenesis of Anthrax

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    There are two main factors that are important for an anthrax infection: bacterial proliferation (growth) and invasion of organ systems and the “…cytotoxic effect of anthrax toxin, with eventual organ failure and death” (Karginov). The first factor occurs once the host has been infected. This infection will never be reached if it were not for a very important characteristic of the bacterium: its ability to form spores. Sporulation occurs in the soil and on culture media but “…not in living tissue

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    Colon Cancer Pathogenesis

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    5-fluorouracil is the first line treatment of metastatic colon cancer because surgery is limited to patients who have no metastasis outside the liver or those who would have an appropriate amount of liver left after the surgery.(2) Colon cancer pathogenesis has been studied and revised extensively over the past two decades,

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    PD Pathogenesis Essay

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    components of FAT to synapses from the cell body. KHC and KLC mediate transport of cargos such as proteins, RNAs, and organelles, such as mitochondria, along MTs to synapses. Here we discuss several studies that suggest an important role for FAT in PD pathogenesis. A recent study using immunohistochemistry suggests a significant decrease in the level of KHC and KLC1 in nigral neurons in sporadic PD cases as well as in the rat genetic PD model (overexpression of human mutant α-synuclein (A30P)), which lead

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    that damage DNA, congenital disease, and gene polymorphisms associated with DNA damage with the impaired repair. Epidemiologic research has been done and has identified genetic, occupational, and environmental factors that can contribute to the pathogenesis of AML. Occupational

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    Pathogenesis of Myasthenia Gravis

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    According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary: Myasthenia gravis is " a disorder of neuromuscular transmission marked by fluctuating weakness and fatigue of certain voluntary muscles, including those innervated by brainstem motor nuclei; caused by a marked reduction in the number of acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting from an autoimmune mechanism."(8) Myasthenia gravis comes from the Greek and Latin words meaning "grave muscular weakness."(1)

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    Smallpox : Pathogenesis and Pathology

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    Smallpox: Pathogenesis and Pathology Smallpox was eradicated in 1980 by the Center for Disease and control. It is now contained in five labs in the United States and Russia, however there are other labs in the world with smallpox. Smallpox is created from the virus Variola which inoculates itself through the skin and into the dermis or more commonly from prolonged, direct face to face contact. Smallpox incubates for as long as two weeks at which time it is multiplying in the lymph nodes and

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a relatively large (2-4 micrometers in length) rod shaped bacillus that acts as a common human pathogen throughout the world.1 This mycobacterium species is an obligate aerobe, which limits its pathogenicity to the oxygen rich lobes of the lungs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is non-motile and is characterized by its unusually high cell wall lipid content. M. tuberculosis has several unique clinical characteristics as a result of this unusually high lipid content. This

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    Bordetella pertussis is an aerobic, Gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium. It is non-spore forming and non-motile, usually containing a capsule. Its preferred temperature to grow is in the range of 35-37C. Under the microscope, it is identified by its rod like cell shape, as well as its short, oval size. During a blood agar culture test for this particular bacteria, the specimen tends to take 3 to 6 days to form a pinpoint sized colony. B. pertussis appears to only affect the human species, therefore

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    Introduction: There is immense study on the role of glutamate in Schizophrenia. Even so to date the current antipsychotics do not control major glutamatergic action albeit a study at the NMDA receptor location such as the glycine transport inhibitors may give new novel evidence for the discovery of future antipsychotics (Olney et al., 1999) The Dopamine hypothesis of Schizophrenia The dopamine (DA) theory of schizophrenia has subjugated the effort to justify the behaviours Schizophrenia is a psychiatric

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    The Molecular Mechanisms of Prion Pathogenesis

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    The aim of this report is to present the subject of prion proteins, their association and interaction in biological terms, paying particular attention to their molecular mechanisms. Prions are infectious agents responsible for Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) diseases1, which are debilitating and progressive neurological diseases resulting in both behavioural dysfunction and severe brain tissue damage. These prion proteins are found in different isoforms, and the development from the

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