NMDA receptor Essays

  • Ketamine: a cure for depression? – A critique

    1102 Words  | 3 Pages

    Jeremy Laurance’s article “Ketamine: a cure for depression?” published in The Independent in October 2012, sanctions the use of a drug of abuse called ketamine for the treatment of depression. The author supports this theory by stating a study completed by Robert Dunman, a professor of Psychiatry and Neurobiology at Yale University School of Medicine in Boston. The following paragraph will summarise the main points of the article and discuss the evidence used by the author. At the beginning of the

  • Anti-NMDA-Receptor Research Paper

    564 Words  | 2 Pages

    THE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE with which I was ultimately diagnosed, anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis, varies wildly in its presentation. For most people, it begins with flu-like symptoms, though it's unclear if patients initially contract a virus related to the disease or if these early symptoms are a result of the disease. Typically, about two weeks after onset, psychiatric problems--such as paranoia, insomnia, mania, and grandiose delusions--take hold, so most patients seek out mental health professionals

  • Cue and Contextual Fear Conditioning

    1476 Words  | 3 Pages

    understanding the synaptic plasticity in other learning and memory systems. It is also possible to use fear conditioning as a model for fear disturbances disorders. Researching fear conditioning at the intracellular level, such as the role of glutamate receptors, provides a foundation in understanding memory formation, as well as begin unraveling disorders that have fear as a component: anxiety, phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Kim & Jung, 2006).

  • Ketamine as a Prototype of Next Antidepressant Generation

    1582 Words  | 4 Pages

    Depression is the most common mental disorder worldwide and one of the top ten causes of morbidities and mortalities (Berton and Nestler, 2006; Nestler et al., 2002). 20% of world populations are affected by depression at anytime of their lives whereas 4% of men and 8% of women are affected by clinically significant depressive disorder. However depressive symptoms in general are much more common (Lehtinen, V and Joukamaa ,M 1994). While depression came the second on the list of the most disabling

  • The Different Families of Ligand-gated Ion Channels

    2426 Words  | 5 Pages

    an extracellular binding site causing the receptor to undergo a conformational change, resulting in the opening of the pore, thus ion flow through, down the electrochemical gradient. The term ligand gated ion channel (LGIC) is a general term used to describe 3 ‘superfamilies’ of ion channels; Cysteine-loop receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate receptors (IGluR) and ATP-gated ion channels. All these superfamiles can be further split into families of receptors. Members of a superfamily differ from member

  • Phencyclidine: The Dawn Of A New Age

    3427 Words  | 7 Pages

    Office. Okuyama, Shigeru. (1994). NE-100, a novel sigma receptor ligand: Effect on phencyclidine-induced behaviors in rats, dogs, and monkeys. Life Sciences. (Vol. 55) PL133-138 Peterson, R.C, & Stillman, R.C. (1978). PCP-Phencylidine Abuse: An appraisal. New York, NY: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Restak, R.M. (1994). Receptors. New York, N.Y: Bantam Books. Souza, Errol B., & Clouet, D., & London, E.D. (1993). Sigma, PCP, and NMDA Receptors. New York, NY: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Svensson

  • G Proteins

    944 Words  | 2 Pages

    important roles in inter-neuronal communication. Receptor sites are made up of proteins and the ion channels in the cell membranes are proteins. The link between the receptor sites and the protein channels sometimes is the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, better known as G Protein. (1) The basic structure and function of these shall be explored in the following. In order for neuron communication to occur, the post-synaptic neuron must have receptor sites for the neurotransmitters released by the

  • Dwarfism

    954 Words  | 2 Pages

    (138). Dwarfism, according to the Greenberg Center, is the result of a genetic condition caused by a new mutation or a genetic change.In 1994, the Center reports that the gene for achondroplasia was found and labeled “fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3).”This discovery of at least one cause of dwarfism was a breakthrough because dwarfs in the past were simply regarded as inexplicable freaks.But now there is biological evidence of a gene, in which,“the mutation, affecting growth, especially

  • Physiologic Effects of Insulin

    1483 Words  | 3 Pages

    effects on many organs and tissues. The Insulin Receptor and Mechanism of Action Like the receptors for other protein hormones, the receptor for insulin is embedded in the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits linked by disulfide bonds. The alpha chains are entirely extracellular and house insulin binding domains, while the linked beta chains penetrate through the plasma membrane. The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase. In other words, it functions

  • ear

    1395 Words  | 3 Pages

    creating pressure waves in the endolymph inside the cochlear duct. These waves then causes the membrane to vibrate, which in turn cause the hairs cells of the spiral organ to move against the tectorial membrane. The bending of the stereo cilia produces receptor potentials that in the end lead to the generation of nerve impulses. The External or Outer Ear - comprises of the auricle or pinna which is the fleshy part of the outer ear. It is cup-shaped and collects and amplifies sound waves which then passes

  • John Steinbeck’s The Chrysanthemums

    576 Words  | 2 Pages

    In John Steinbeck’s The Chrysanthemums, the reader is introduced to the seemingly timid and shy Elisa Allen. Elisa is routinely planting her yearly sets of Chrysanthemums, which appear to be the sole receptor of her caring and gentle touch, but all the while it is evident that “the chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy.” Her hidden eagerness seems not only out of place, but out of touch with her dry and wilted surroundings, of which her husband, Henry, abruptly interrupts her

  • Synaptic Transmitters Involved in LSD Administration

    1123 Words  | 3 Pages

    hallucinogens) stimulate 5-HT2A receptors (Kalat, 2004). Activation of these receptors causes cortical glutamate levels to increase. This is presumed to be a result of a "presynaptic receptor-mediated release" from neurons in the thalumus (Nichols, 2004). Early studies proposed that LSD antagonized the effects of serotonin on peripheral tissues. It was later proposed that the psychoactive properties of LSD may be a result of the blocking of serotonin receptors in the central nervous system

  • Anabolic Steroids

    1682 Words  | 4 Pages

    and deepening of the voice. The hormone produces these results when it is absorbed from the bloodstream by certain types of cells. Molecules of testosterone fit into receptor sites located inside the cells, just as a key fits into a lock. When the receptor site is filled , the cell is activated. There are a certain number of receptor sites in each cell. If only a few them get filled, the cell will respond at a low level. If all of these sites are filled, the cell produces its maximum response (http://www

  • Visual Perception

    1528 Words  | 4 Pages

    of light that focus on specific places on the retina. This light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye consists of interconnected neurons. The three diff erent types are receptor cells, bipolar cells and ganglian cells. When photoreceptors are stimulated, they change in structure of photopigments in the receptors and transduce light input into neural activity. (2) Electrical stimulus trave ls down the axon of bipolar cells to the ganglian cells. The ganglian cells are activated through nerve

  • Serotonin and Its Uses

    1358 Words  | 3 Pages

    Serotonin and Its Uses Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in the brain that has an enormous influence over many brain functions. It is synthesized, from the amino acid L-tryptophan, in brain neurons and stored in vesicles. Serotonin is found in three main areas of the body: the intestinal wall; large constricted blood vessels; and the central nervous system. The most widely studied effects have been those on the central nervous system. The functions of serotonin are

  • Endocrine Disruption

    2630 Words  | 6 Pages

    (blood stream). If there were no receptor sites for the hormones in the body, then they would continue to flow along the river and probably not make their destination. However, there are systems of receptor sites that enable specific hormones to bind in specific places. Structure also plays a major role in determining which hormones are able to bind to which receptors. When these “messages in bottles'; reach their appointed destination, the binding into the receptor site causes a cascade of reactions

  • Opiates And The Law

    2821 Words  | 6 Pages

    best-known opioid around, and arguably one of the most addictive substances known to man. Opiates and opioids (hereafter generically referred to as opioids) function by attaching to receptor sites in the body called mu-receptors, which are primarily located in the brain and the digestive system. When these receptors are activated in the brain they produce a rush of euphoria and a groggy state of well being (it is interesting to note that studies have shown that this action does not eliminate the

  • Search for Meaning in James Joyce's Dubliners

    2387 Words  | 5 Pages

    multiplicity in Joyce's works, diffuses into something necessarily plural: meanings. An ontological crisis is inextricable from this crisis of meaning and representation. In Joyce's stories the reader is displaced from her/his traditionally passive role as receptor of the knowledge an author seeks to impart, and "positioned as both reader and writer of text, in some ways playing as integral a part in constructing the work as the author does.(Benstock 17)" In the novel's opening story, "The Sisters," Joyce

  • Polio Virus

    795 Words  | 2 Pages

    virus travels down the digestive tract to the small intestine where it replicates itself in the B-cells and T-cells of the gut mucosa lining the intestine. Spread and Replication Poliovirus binds to a specific cell surface protein, polio virus receptor (PVR). This protein is an immunoglobin which contains three loops, Ig domains. Polio binds... ... middle of paper ... ...the polio vaccinations contaminated with SV40 and its link to cancer. Resources Flint, S., Enquist, L., Krug, R., Racaniello

  • What's Love Got To Do With It?

    675 Words  | 2 Pages

    emotions rests with neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act at the points where nerve cells connect with each other. The prevalence, or the presence or absence of specific amounts of neurotransmitters, as well as the density of receptor sites for specific neurotransmitters at nerve endings, will control to a wide extend the emotions to which we are subject (6). Pheromones are natural scents, which play an important role in sexual communication. Animals and humans release masses