Free National DNA database Essays and Papers

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Free National DNA database Essays and Papers

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    compare new samples of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the registered DNA samples of “convicted offenders, unsolved crime scene evidence, and missing persons across local, State, and national databases” (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). Scientific and government research identifies the program’s efficacy is a result of the increasing number of criminal case closures from cross-referencing suspect DNA samples against samples in the DNA database. Alternately, there is equal concern for the efficiency

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    DNA testing

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    DNA testing has overthrown the way police collect evidence in a number of criminal cases, especially rape and murder and consequently had a large impact on many past cases. However there are many disadvantages to DNA testing, such as a challenge of accuracy, the costs of DNA testing and the possible misuse of DNA. The prospect of a national DNA database in Australia has been heavily criticised with complaints of invasion of privacy and stigma against those with terminal diseases. Deoxyribonucleic

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    Introduction The concept of DNA testing has expanded throughout the last several decades, and attention needs to be paid to the methods and implications of storing and using the samples. The human genome is a complex structure comprised of billions of base pairs. Only 0.1% of DNA makes up all of the differences in humans’ physical appearance (Pattock, 2011, p.855). Each person has about one hundred trillion cells, all of which contain chromosomes that make up an individual’s genome. DNA from a Chromosome

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    DNA evidence is often processed and analyzed in an investigation of a violent crime-homicide and rapes-due to the fact that it increases the rate at which suspects are identified, arrested, and prosecuted. According to the case study the DNA field experiment: a randomized trial of the cost-effectiveness of using DNA to solve property crimes, the researchers set out to answer whether processing and analyzing DNA in property crimes, such as burglary, is useful and cost-effective. The researchers gathered

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    “Even with the reliability of DNA examinations, forensic scientists need additional safeguards to ensure the significance of their findings are not over- or under-interpreted” (Willis, 2011, p77). While laboratory techniques for DNA recovery and profiling are well established in criminal investigative laboratories (Bond, et al, 2007, p129), it can be argued that a possible weakness of the use of national databases are understaffing and/or under training of investigators and laboratory staff. Standardization

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    DNA and DNA Profiling Made Simple

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    1.1. Amplification If the quantity of the DNA isolated is not enough, the specialist increases it to optimal levels via an amplification technique that uses the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. In addition, PCR targets specific locations on the DNA strand known as the loci (singular: locus) to produce similar copies. 1.2. Electrophoresis In this process, the specialist separates the materials based on their size and composition of the DNA strands on a particular gel in the presence of

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    Familial DNA Searching

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    Nowadays, DNA is a crucial component of a crime scene investigation, used to both to identify perpetrators from crime scenes and to determine a suspect’s guilt or innocence (Butler, 2005). The method of constructing a distinctive “fingerprint” from an individual’s DNA was first described by Alec Jeffreys in 1985. He discovered regions of repetitions of nucleotides inherent in DNA strands that differed from person to person (now known as variable number of tandem repeats, or VNTRs), and developed

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    DNA Profiling

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    DNA profiling is used in a variety of ways, such as establishing proof of paternity, or identifying siblings. While DNA contains material common to all humans, some portions are unique to each individual; thus, DNA testing can help solve crimes by comparing the DNA profiles of suspects to offender samples. DNA profiles can be used to identify individuals, allowing evidence to be used both as a means of convicting the guilty and as a means of exonerating the innocent. People can leave traces of their

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    Privacy Concerns

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    doubt national DNA databases have proved useful in criminal investigations (Wallace, 2006, pS27). The concept of a national DNA database has raised concern about privacy and human rights as seen through the scope of public safety. All of these concerns are elevated with databases include convicted, arrestee, innocent, and “rehabilitated” offenders (Suter, 2010, p339). Robin Williams of University of Duham (2006) asserts that: “The rapid implementation and continuing expansion of forensic DNA databases

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    DNA analysis has come a long way since the beginning of any type of testing. Before DNA analysis became was used, or even used a widely as it is now, it was harder for law enforcement agencies to identify suspects of crimes. Now DNA analysis testing can determine the DNA of an individual, or a family member. DNA analysis is the process in which genetic sequences are studied. There are several different ways to analyze forensic DNA. This has had a great influence on the accuracy and reliability

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