Free Methodological Essays and Papers

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  • The Methodological Role of the Concept

    4461 Words  | 18 Pages

    The Methodological Role of the Concept "Physical Vacuum" Science is entering the post-non-classical period characterized by evolutionary-synergistic types of rationality, the central moment of which is research of complex nonlinear systems. During the last few decades, physics has made a revolutionary turn toward new representations of the nature of elementary particles and has revealed unexpected features of the physical vacuum, with the evolving Universe having become the basic subject of study

  • Exploring Methodological Individualism

    3735 Words  | 15 Pages

    Exploring Methodological Individualism ABSTRACT: I defend the truth of the principle of methodological individualism in the social sciences. I do so by criticizing mistaken ideas about the relation between individual people and social entities held by earlier defenders of the principle. I argue, first, that social science is committed to the intentional stance; the domain of social science, therefore, coincides with the domain of intentionally described human action. Second, I argue that social

  • Behaviorism - A Methodological Proposal of Explaining the Behavior

    3387 Words  | 14 Pages

    Behaviorism must be seen as a methodological proposal of explaining the behavior of organisms from the lowest to the highest. Explaining human and nonhuman behavior by reference to scientific laws and the theories expressed of physical states, events, and entities. Because modern psychology emerged roughly in the mid-19th century, information of behaviorism was gathered in its early stages by introspection (looking at your own inner states of being; your own desires, feelings, and intentions) then

  • In Search of a Methodological Foundation for Applied Ethics

    3383 Words  | 14 Pages

    In Search of a Methodological Foundation for Applied Ethics ABSTRACT: The problems that face contemporary applied ethics are indissolubly related to some characteristics of postmodern civil society. In this paper I will try to take a stand in the discussion between a proponent of a particularistic approach and one who favors a universalistic approach to the present difficulties that accompany human action. Karl-Otto Apel combines in his ethics of discourse a focus upon universal and normative

  • Methodological Eclecticism in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

    4164 Words  | 17 Pages

    Methodological Eclecticism in Teaching English as a Foreign Language "Eclectic", remarks Atkinson (1988, p. 42), "is one of the buzz words in TEFL at present, in part due to the realization that for the foreseeable future good language teaching is likely to continue to be based more on common sense, insights drawn from classroom experience, informed discussion among teachers, etc., than on any monolithic model of second language acquisition or all-embracing theory of learning . . . ". One problem

  • Bruner and Wittgenstein: Language Learning

    4279 Words  | 18 Pages

    comes with its acquisition of language, but before we can engage in any pedagogical efforts to further infant development or to aid atypical cases, we need to understand methodologically what occurs during language learning. Jerome Bruner, in a methodological adaptation of Ludwig Wittgenstein's middle and later work in an extension of Noam Chomsky's LAD, has put forth one influential proposal (Bruner 1983). Ludwig Wittgenstein's own remarks on the topic also furnish an interesting story independent

  • Reflexivity in Ethnographic Research and Writing

    1614 Words  | 7 Pages

    modernism and modernity. Reflexivity emphasizes the point of theoretical and practical questioning, changing the ethnographers view of themselves and their work. There is an increased awareness of the collection of data and the limitation of methodological systems. This idea becomes inherent in the postmodernists study of the culture of the anthropologist/ethnographer. In much of his essay, Marcus shows that reflexivity is an immense area of comment and interest by questioning: Is reflexivity

  • Philosophical Anthropology

    2994 Words  | 12 Pages

    including philosophical thinking are characteristically human, philosophers may come to reflect upon how such functions are conditioned by human conditions. But such conditions can be addressed by empirical sciences as well, sometimes with greater methodological care or seriousness than can be found among some philosophers, as in cognitive psychology or cultural anthropology. If, in the course of the development of philosophy as a discipline, human experience becomes the primary thematic ... ... middle

  • A New Vision of Science

    2366 Words  | 10 Pages

    traditional convictions of scientific knowledge while acknowledging relativism. With reference to the practicing scientist, we replace descriptivism with constructivism; we modify relative validity with the claim to understanding; and, we offer methodological strategies for acquiring understanding. These strategies we call strangification, which means taking a scientific proposition system out of its context and putting it in another context. We can thus see the implicit presuppositions of the given

  • Are There Things Which We Should Not Know?

    3192 Words  | 13 Pages

    Are There Things Which We Should Not Know? It has been claimed that decisions concerning scientific research topics and the publication of research results are purely methodological, and that any moral considerations refer only to research methods and uses of acquired knowledge. The arguments advanced in favor of this view appeal to the moral neutrality of scientific knowledge and the intrinsic value of truth. I argue that neither is valid. Moreover, I show three cases where a scientist’s decision

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