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    Take-home #2 Professor Gan November 20, 2015 5.) What is the difference between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative? In class when we had the conversation about chapter two of Immanuel Kant’s Grounding of Morals, we had discussed the imperatives. The imperatives are broken down into two sections, hypothetical imperative and categorical imperative each having different meanings. Hypothetical imperative is described as a “command that a particular action is necessary as a means to some

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    that there are two types of obligations. These two types of obligations are hypothetical imperatives and categorical imperatives. Hypothetical imperatives essentially give instructions based on a person’s individual preference and vary for each situation, Categorical imperatives, unlike hypothetical imperatives, give commands/instructions that are to be applied regardless of personal preferences. One major categorical imperative states that an action is permissible if both

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    Philippa Foot's Hypothetical Imperatives Philippa Foot finds trouble with the arguments of Kant, who said that it was necessary to distinguish moral judgments from hypothetical imperatives. Although this may have become an unquestionable truth, Foot says that this is a misunderstanding. Kant defined a hypothetical imperative as an action that addresses what "should" or "ought" to be done. He believed that the necessity of performing a certain action was based on other desires. This particular

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    behind it, and the only way to act morally is one that comes about based on universal laws. There is a class of imperatives that we must do, despite the outcome. Kant called these "categorical imperatives," we can call these moral actions. We do them because we feel obligated, they are our duty, and we do so whether we like the outcome, or not. There is also "hypothetical imperatives," these are things we need to do to get a specific outcome. Kant states that if we believe that an action is moral

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    Imperatives are commands; they tell human beings what to do. Kant differentiated these two types of imperatives: categorical and hypothetical. A categorical imperative is an absolute and universal moral obligation; it tells us what to do regardless of our desires. On the other hand, hypothetical imperatives are neither universal nor absolute; instead they take the uncertain approach of "If you want to achieve this, you must perform this." Unlike categorical imperatives, they are dependent on our

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    Philosophy: Immanuel Kant

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    respect for the law.2 Kant names this foundational principle the categorical imperative. Kant’s categorical imperative is a method of determining an action’s morality based on the action being objectively necessary, and is the first of two types of imperatives. Such an action is good in itself, not just as a means of achieving some other purpose. Because Kant believes all people poses rational will, the categorical imperative applies to everyone, guiding him or her to act in the same way regardless

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    are good will, moral worth, and imperatives. When it comes to good will Kant believes that “Nothing in the world—indeed nothing even beyond the world—can possibly be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will” 1. In the next key concept, moral worth, Kant believes that actions are only morally right depending on their motives, “an action done not from inclination but from duty” 2 is morally right according to Kant. Kant’s imperatives are broken down into two types

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    Metaphysics of Morals

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    for performing an action that conforms with duty could rest solely on moral grounds. In order to fully explain the core principle of moral theory, Kant distinguishes between key notions such as a priori and a posteriori, and hypothetical imperative vs. categorical imperative, in order to argue whether the actions of rational beings are actually moral or if they are only moral because of one’s hidden inclinations. When Kant says, "For when moral value is being considered, the concern is not with the

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    Philippa Foot Analysis

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    Discussion of Philippa Foot Philippa Foot starts her piece with a description of hypothetical imperatives, presumably in order to contrast them with categorical imperatives. She uses the classic Kantian description that a hypothetical imperative is a means to an end, not an end in itself. So the “ought” of a hypothetical imperative says that we ought to do something only because we want something else. Categorical imperatives, on the other hand, ought to be followed as an end in themselves and have a

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    categorical imperative, Kant’s view point on this controversial issue would be conservative or against abortion. In the second section of Kant’s writing, he begins discussing imperatives. Kant defines imperatives as “an ought and thereby indicate the relation of an objective law of reason to a will which in its subjective constitution is not necessarily determined by that law (a necessitation).” Kant deciphers imperatives into two categories: hypothetical and categorical. Hypothetical imperatives are actions

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