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    Hydrocarbon Case Study

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    Hydrocarbon generally exist in liquid and gaseous forms. The liquid form is a mixture of water and oil (Hilyard, 2012). In Nigeria, pipelines and road truck tankers are the means of transportation and distribution of liquid petroleum products (Ambituuni et. al., 2015). Likewise, pipelines are means of transportation worldwide and used to convey large amount of crude oil, natural gas and petroleum products from well head to the processing points, then to the flow stations, the storage tanks in the

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    Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons

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    Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons Petroleum, also known as crude oil is formed from fossilized remains of marine plants and animals that settled on the sea floor millions of years ago. Petroleum consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons molecules including parrafins, aromatics, napthenes/ cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms that form various structures from straight chains to branching chains and rings. Hydrocarbons with low molecular

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    Digestion in the Rhizosphere The rhizosphere consists of the soil, microbes living within it and the roots of macrophytes which loosen and thereby provide oxygen the region. Soil contains bacteria and fungi capable of metabolizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). PAHs are composed of two or more benzene rings and/or pentacyclic molecules arranged in various structural configurations. Their hydrophobic nature makes them highly insoluble in water and recalcitrant in the natural environment. Anthropogenic

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    Scientists have studied the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regards to many health defects in humans, one of them being asthma. Asthma is a chronic condition regarding the respiratory system. Muscles in the respiratory system, specifically the lungs and the trachea, tighten causing a narrowing of the passageways in which air flows through. The constrictions of the respiratory organs can cause many symptoms that include strained breathing and tension of the chest (Friis, 2012). In the

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    Elements Of Hydrocarbons

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    Hydrocarbons make up almost all of the fossil fuels used everyday. Hydrocarbons are split into 3 groups, the alkanes, the alkenes, and the alkynes. Alkanes are all the hydrocarbons with only single bonds between the carbons. These molecules all end in the suffix ‘ane.’ Alkenes are the hydrocarbons with at least one double bond between a pair of carbon atoms. These molecules end in ‘ene.’ Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between

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    Hydrocarbons Essay

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    interconnected (permeability) in order to allow flow to occur. Hydrocarbons can be termed as reservoir fluid. The volume of hydrocarbons stored in a reservoir depends upon the porosity of the reservoir rock. The rate and volume at which hydrocarbons are withdrawn depends upon the permeability of the reservoir rock. Almost complete pore space of the superior several kilometres of earth’s crust contains water. Therefore in this water environment hydrocarbons exist with amalgamation of oil, gas and water occurring

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    Paper 1

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    biostimulation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. These bacteria metabolize the hydrocarbons in oil and make them less toxic for the environment. This in combination with mechanical methods of cleaning provide the highest ceiling in efficiency along with the safest byproducts. Through a clear understanding of how oil reacts in marine environments, how these bacteria function, and the alternative options in cleaning a spill, it is clear that the biostimulation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria

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    Natural Rubber

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    everyday items the most prevalent being car tires which I’ll discuss later also. (slide 3) Natural rubber is obtained from the milky white fluid called latex, found in many plants however synthetic rubbers are produced from unsaturated hydrocarbons (basically this means that there are carbon atoms in the rubber molecule that have a potential to be bonded to more hydrogen. Latex is a milky fluid found in specialized cells, called lactiferous cells. To gather the latex from plantation

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    unit after desalting and heating processes. The main purpose of atmospheric distillation is primarily separation of various ‘cuts’ of hydrocarbons namely; fuel gases, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and fuel oil. The heavy hydrocarbon residue left a the bottom of the atmospheric distillation unit is sent to vacuum distillation column for further separation of hydrocarbon under reduced pressure. The pressure profile in the atmospheric distillation unit is close to atmospheric pressure with highest pressure

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    After 1993, Cambodia economy has been increase rapidly and the scale of the city also expended but at the same time it leads to level up of air pollution (Furuuchi et al., 2006). Many emission sources of air pollution from anthropogenic are concerned, especially the rising number of vehicles has resulted in even greater pollution and growth in the population, resulted in a large amount of energy consumption: electricity, automobiles, household, field burning etc. (Furuuchi et al., 2009). Most of

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