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    Gene Expression

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    Introduction Functional genomics is defined as the use of molecular biological tools to explore the gene functions and interactions from genome sequencing data (SERC, 2013). Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are among the techniques that are commonly used in functional genomics. The goal of transcriptome studies is to identify the transcripts expressed in a genome. Since human genome studies, EST was the main technique used for transcript identification.

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    Gene Expression Noise

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    heterogeneity in gene expression. This phenomenon, gene expression noise, has been observed and measured across species as divergent as prokaryotes and mammalian cells.1-4 We have been keenly interested in understanding more about the origin of this heterogeneity as well as wondering what potential functional consequences it may have. We have begun addressing these questions with a suite of experiments described in the following chapters. In Chapter 1, we examine the effects selection may have on gene expression

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    Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

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    end result of the DNA sequence but also of the cell’s internal system of expression orchestrated by different proteins and RNAs present at a given time. DNA encodes for many possible characteristics, but different types of RNA aided by specialized proteins sometimes with external signals express the needed genes. Control of gene expression is of vital importance for an eukaryote’s survival such as the ability of switching genes on/off in accordance with the changes in the environment (Campbell and

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    “modifications” to DNA that affect gene expression but do not involve base changes  These changes are regular and naturally occurring nevertheless can be heavily influenced by several factors such as; • Age • Environment & life style • Or disease state. “According to Dr. Lipton, the true secret to life does not lie within your DNA, but rather within the mechanisms of your cell membrane.” There are 4 main mechanisms of modification and regulation of gene expression; DNA methylation, Chromatin Remodeling

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    was extracted and assayed using reverse transcription-PCR. The results from reverse transcript-PCR suggest that Echinacea extracts are capable of up-regulating the level of ApoA-I gene expression. Caco-2 cells incubated with Echinacea extracts exhibited approximately a 17-fold increase in the level of gene expression as compared to Caco-2 cells without Echinacea extracts (Figure 1). The relative amount of apoA-I protein secreted by the cells into the culture media was also analysed using protein

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    Interest The experiment conducted in “Social environment is associated with gene regulatory variation in the rhesus macaque immune system” by Tung et al., [1] mainly garnered our interest because the experiment incorporates not only social environment, and individual physiology contexts of biology but also their linking through the molecular level of biology. We found that the impact of social environment on the expression of genes resulting in changes to an individual’s physiology to be fascinating. Also

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    EST and SAGE Analysis

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    A) Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) Analysis There are huge numbers of genes in our genome yet only few of them express to synthesis mRNAs which encode different proteins. These mRNAs are collectively called as transcriptome and mRNA can be reverse transcribed into cDNA, which provides evidence for all mRNA transcripts. Hence, mRNA and cDNA are crucial for gene expression profiling and transcriptome study. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are short, unverified nucleotide fragment usually of 200-800 nucleotide

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    Biological Replicates

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    to artifactual relative expression profiles, and also to expose any measurement errors made by the laser scanner. The pairing of the Cy3 or Cy5-labeled cDNA samples can be randomized in a number of ways – the figure above shows only one way of pairing. The microarray chips can then be visualized with a laser scanner using corresponding excitation wavelengths of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes, and recording the emitted light from each spot. The ratiometric profiling of individual genes based on the ratio of

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    RNAi

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    in women. In this project we will use RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a simple and rapid method of silencing gene expression. So, it will be used silence the expression of the gene that is responsible for thyroid cancer. We will discuss three parts: First: The thyroid cancer gene Second: RNA interference Third: How RNA interference can silence the gene expression The thyroid cancer gene BRAF belongs to a family of serine-threonine protein kinases that includes ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF (RAF1). RAF kinases

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    composite

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    secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants ( ). and published Published reports have described that SA activated artemisinin biosynthesis in whole A. annua plants and it could up-regulate ADS gene through invoking 1O2 burst (), but there wasn’t isn’t any report on time-course of SA effects on the main genes of in artemisinin pathway. Gibberellic acid (GA3) is another plant hormone, which regulates seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, flower and fruit development (). Application of exogenous

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