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    The freezing point of p-xylene was calculated as 13.29C after averaging the data that appeared on Graph 1 once the temperature leveled off. With this value, the Tf for each trial was able to be calculated through Equation 1, which led to Kf being calculated in Equation 2. Both equations were able to be used given that the measurements were in terms of molality, which is not temperature dependent. After completing calculations, the average Kf of the three trials of the p-xylene and toluene solution

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    Blank 4/9/02 Effects of Salts on the Freezing Point of Water In this experiment, you will study the effect that several solutes have on the Freezing Point of water. When a solute is dissolved in a liquid, the temperature at which that liquid freezes decreases, because the molecules of the solute become attached to the water molecules, making it more difficult for the water to form its crystaline shape and form into ice. This process is called Freezing Point Depression. In this experiment, you will

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    Freezing point depression: First, the freezing point depression of magnesium chloride was found. To begin, an ice bath was created in a 600 mL beaker filled with ice provided in the laboratory and rock salt. Next, Four different solutions with concentrations of 0.0 g (control), 0.2 g, 0.4 g, and 0.6g of magnesium chloride and 15 mL of deionized water were created. Each solution was made in a 100 mL beaker. The solutions containing magnesium chloride were stirred with a glass rod until the salt was

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    Freezing Point Lab

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    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the temperatures of the freezing and the melting points of water. Background: In order to understand this experiment, some background information was needed. For example, a person must understand what a melting point and what a freezing point is. A freezing point is defined as a temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid. A melting is the opposite of the freezing point. It is defined as a temperature at which a solid, turns into a liquid. That

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    The freezing point of p-xylene was calculated by taking the average calculated Kf of the three trials of the p-xylene and toluene solution. The average of the three trials was computed as 4.56(C/m) as shown in Table 1, however, the theoretical value was slightly lower than calculated, 4.3(C/m). This resulted in a 6.04% error as shown in Equation 5; possible causes of error could have resulted from adding too much solute or too little solvent, then the calculations would have been off given that the

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    Katrina Epps Lab Partner: Jennifer Carter Tim Little CHE113-011 17 February 2014 Freezing Point of Sugar and Salt Introduction The purpose of this lab was to determine the molality of sugar and salt substance through calculating the freezing point depression (freezing point depression is the effect of lowering the freezing point of a substance due to an increased amount of solute added to the solvent in that the solute decreases the amount of vapor pressure) when the sugar or salt substance is added

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    bonds hold water together and give it its cohesiveness. These bonds are also very important to water's ability to absorb heat, as without hydrogen bonds water would have a boiling point of -80 degrees C and a freezing point of -100 degrees C. In reality, however, water has a boiling point of 100 degrees C and a freezing point of 0 degrees C. The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one Celsius degree is called a Calorie. One Calorie is about twice as much energy as

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    gasses (This is called the "greenhouse effect."). The gases--water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4)--keep ground temperatures at a global average of about 15 degrees C (60 degrees F). Without them the average would be below the freezing point of water. The gases have this effect because as incoming solar radiation strikes the surface, the surface gives off infrared radiation, or heat, that the gases trap and keep near ground level. The effect is comparable to the way in which a greenhouse

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    Hacking Nationalism

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    The Background In March of 1999, the "North Atlantic Treaty Organisation"(NATO) Allied Forces were in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia carrying out a peacekeeping mission. U.S. intelligence officers began considering the Federal Directory of Supplies and Procurement (FDSP) of Yugoslavia as a potential target of the NATO Allied Forces in early March. They referred to three out-dated maps (both commercial and government maps)which did not include the new location of the China Embassy

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    this lab is to use the properties of the freezing point of different solutions to find the Kf value, and identify unknown solutions. There two experiments with several trials. The first experiment was measuring the freezing point, and based on that, calculate the freezing point depression constant (Kf) for the p-xylene (which is the solvent). The second experiment was identifying unknown solutions by calculating their molar masses using the freezing point depression measurements. Colligative properties

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