Monosodium Glutamate I.INTRODUCTION Have you ever had a situation were after a busy day at work, went to a restaurant for a nice dinner and enjoyed the taste of the food that was presented to you, but soon after the dinner was over, you felt really tired and sick? Did this ever made you regret the fact that you went there instead of taking the time of preparing to yourself something “light” and “healthy” or maybe you were promising to yourself that you would never do this again? But how
terminal (Glutamate and Glutamine in the Brain, 2000). I am choosing glutamate as my neurotransmitter of choice, so in order for glutamate to be an efficient neurotransmitter, a low external signal-to-noise ratio must be preset in order to prevent excitotoxicity which can damage and even kill nearby neurons. Glutamate must also need to be removed from the synapse or it must have to be resynthesized within the
diffusion tensor imaging study. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 12(1), 59-69. doi:10.3109/17482968.2010.517850 Zhao, P. E. (2008). Altered presymptomatic AMPA and cannabinoid receptor trafficking in motor neurons of ALS model mice: implications for excitotoxicity. European Journal Of Neuroscience, 27(3), 572-579.
Reversing Stroke and Spinal Cord Damage Scientists are on the brink of doing the unthinkable-replenishing the brains of people who have suffered strokes or head injuries to make them whole again. If that is not astonishing enough, they think they may be able to reverse paralysis. The door is at last open to lifting the terrifying sentence these disorders still decree-loss of physical function, cognitive skills, memory, and personality. Until recently there was virtually nothing doctors could
The plan for any movement originates in the brain. The major part of the brain involved in the initiation and control of voluntary movement is the primary motor cortex. Motor neurons in the brain are called upper motor neurons (UMNs), whereas motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord are called lower motor neurons (LMNs). UMNs are unable to leave the CNS; therefore they must synapse with LMNs whose axons can leave the CNS, which allows them to synapse with muscles throughout the body. Thus
physical changes in brain structure, the process towards neurodegeneration, and the numerous hypotheses that are present will also be discussed. These hypotheses include the Amyloid Beta Hypothesis, the Cholinergic hypothesis, the glutamatergic/excitotoxicity hypothesis, the oxidative stress hypothesis, and the chronic inflammation hypothesis will be discussed and analyzed. These hypotheses will not be discussed as a treatment method but rather on the basis of the cellular and molecular ways in which
Introduction and History: Throughout the medical history there has been many diseases and viruses around the world, which lead to numerous amount of deaths. Some of the diseases are easily treatable however, for some of the diseases there is still no cure or treatment. One of the diseases that does not have a cure is known as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease (ALS) or Lou Gehrig’s disease. It is the most common type of motor neurons disease. Henry Louis was a famous baseball player who was diagnosed
Since Bipolar Disorder involves the cycling between two different states of mania and major depression, there are many different etiological factors in play. The neurotransmitters that are involved in this disease are serotonin, norepinehrine and dopamine. There has been some preliminary research involved with glutamate as well. In patients with the depressive portion of Bipolar Disorder, Serotonin levels were found to be lower than healthy, non-depressed patients (Young, Warsh, Kish, Shannak &
INTRODUCTION The spinal cord is a major channel in the body where motor and sensory information travels from the brain to the body. It has white matter that surrounds a central gray matter. The gray matter is where most of the neuronal cells are located. Injury to the spinal cord will affect the conduction of information across any part of the spinal cord where the damage is located (Maynard et al., 1997). This will often result in permanent disability of a certain muscle or region of the body
mutations in the SOD1 gene. Currently, the pathogenesis of the disease is unknown. However, multiple studies show that there are several mechanisms contribute to the progression of the disease. These include mitochondrial dysfunction, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, axonal dysfunction, reactive astrocytosis, protein aggregation, and mutant SOD1 expression.
Microglial are the resident macrophage of the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma that participate in both CNS innate and adaptive immunity as well as taking part in many CNS development and homeostasis maintenance to support brain integrity. Credited to these roles, emerging evidence implicates microglial as key player that executing both beneficial and detrimental effects in various CNS-related neurological disease including neurodegeneration, neoplastic disease as well as neural development
Traumatic Brain Injury: What happens to the blood-brain barrier? Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide for which there is no cure. Many patients who survive from TBI may experience permanent cognitive loss, behavioral issues, and emotional disturbances, which require daily medical or social attentions.[1, 2] It is believed that over 2% US population is experiencing TBI-associated disabilities which create an annual burden evaluated at $60 billion
Audiology, 46(5), 223-231. Torre III, P. (2008). Young adults' use and output level settings of personal music systems. Ear and Hearing, 29(5), 791-799. Yamasoba, T., Pourbakht, A., Sakamoto, T., & Suzuki, M. (2005). Ebselen prevents noise-induced excitotoxicity and temporary threshold shift. Neuroscience letters, 380(3), 234-238. Zhao, F., Manchaiah, V. K. C., French, D., & Price, S. M. (2010). Music exposure and hearing disorders: An overview. International Journal of Audiology, 49(1), 54-64. doi: doi:10
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy a disorder of the brain which is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures and by its neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences (Nandanavana et al., 2014). Epilepsy is the second most common and frequently encountered neurological condition that imposes heavy burden on individuals, families, and also on healthcare systems (Senthil Amudhan et al., 2015). International League against Epilepsy (ILAE 1993) defined