Free Epistemic Essays and Papers

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Free Epistemic Essays and Papers

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    Bonjour

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    foundationalism. He describes the various forms of foundationalism and the main argument surrounding them as well as the justification regress problem - Justification of a belief is justified by another belief which must also be justified...etc. This epistemic regress gives the foundationalist four options: (i) The regress ends with beliefs that have no justification. (No good because unjustified arbitrary beliefs cannot justify beliefs.) (ii) The regress is infinite (No good because there is no justification

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    mere side-effects of progress. How much more serious the problems we face today are is understood not only by seeing the magnitude of material or biological crises (such as environmental disruption), but also by discerning what we may call our 'epistemic and moral inability' — a crisis in our ability to cope with uncertainty both in science and morality. The purpose of this paper is to trace the origin of this crisis, and to problematize it as a defect of the form of human self-understanding in contemporary

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    The problems of ethnocentrism tend to manifest themselves in the philosophy of history, when philosophers attempt to interpret empirical history in teleological terms. Ethnocentrism arises whenever the researcher attempts to universalize the Western subject-position. In sociological terms that have been widely popularized since Sumner, ethnocentrism involves one first identifying with an in-group, with whom one shares certain observable characteristics (culture, language, physical features, or customs

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    Furthermore, in the socially constructed reality, function plays in integral part in the definition of something. For example, take the question, ‘what is a bucket?’ The response: a bucket is a receptacle that can keep contained liquids, small objects, or whatever else, but what we can see is that the standard answer in social interactions is a functional one. Most people will not answer that it is X material that consists of the chemical make-up of Y, and that is similar to a standard scientific

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    Autonomy in Determinism

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    Autonomy in Determinism (1) ABSTRACT: There are good reasons for determinism — the option for pure freedom of will proves to be a non-tenable position. However, this collides with the everyday experience of autonomy. The following argument will attempt to show that determinism and autonomy are compatible. (1) A first consideration going back to MacKay makes clear that I myself cannot foresee in principle my own determination; hence fatalism has lost its grounds. (2) From the perspective of physical

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    Respect, Coercion and Religious Belief

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    Respect, Coercion and Religious Belief In this paper, I articulate and evaluate an important argument in support of the claim that citizens of a liberal democracy should not support coercive policies on the basis of a rationale they know other citizens reasonably reject. I conclude that that argument is unsuccessful. In particular, I argue that religious believers who support coercive public policies on the basis of religious convictions do not disrespect citizens who reasonably regard such religious

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    Ethnocentrism

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    To conceive – or to think in terms of concepts – is to make an epistemic claim, which may not be the same as attributing of something that it possibly exists in reality. The philosophy of the mind remains indebted to Kripke’s distinction between epistemic possibility (how things could conceivably be) and metaphysical possibility (how things could really be).[4] What could conceivably be the case might be metaphysically

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    Discussion of the Existence of God Lots of people around the world are confused about how it all actually began. A lot of people suggest that there is an immortal God who created everything including man and animals. In this essay I am going to discuss the different ways people have tried to prove God’s existence and the arguments which imply that there is no such being as God. Different people have different views on the existence of God. People who believe in a God that is all powerful

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    A Unified Theory of Names ABSTRACT: Theoreticians of names are currently split into two camps: Fregean and Millian. Fregean theorists hold that names have referent-determining senses that account for such facts as the change of content with the substitution of co-referential names and the meaningfulness of names without bearers. Their enduring problem has been to state these senses. Millian theorists deny that names have senses and take courage from Kripke's arguments that names are rigid designators

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    Philosophical Concepts of Value

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    Introduction Value has been a fundamental issue in philosophy from the time of Plato, although the common usage of the term "value" in philosophy extends only back to the nineteenth century. Before that time, value were discussed in terms of the good, the right, beauty, virtue, truth, obligation, moral judgement, aesthetic judgement etc. The recognition that all these separate concepts are based on the same underlying structure led to the development of "value theory" through the works of such eminent

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