Free Epistemic Essays and Papers

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Free Epistemic Essays and Papers

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    Since the mid-20th century, a central debate in the philosophy of science is the role of epistemic values when evaluating its bearing in scientific reasoning and method. In 1953, Richard Rudner published an influential article whose principal argument and title were “The Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments” (Rudner 1-6). Rudner proposed that non-epistemic values are characteristically required when making inductive assertions on the rationalization of scientific hypotheses. This paper aims

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    Acquisition and Justification of Beliefs

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    Bartleby is a lazy student who refuses to study simply because he would prefer not. Although his teacher, Mr. Smith, automatically assumes that Bartleby failed the final exam he just took, Mr. Smith could have reasoned that he has sufficient evidence to support his belief. Mr. Smith has seen that Bartleby shows little interest in the class, that he has poor study habits and has consistently failed all his previous exams, and that just about enough questions were incorrect on the portion of the exam

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    Why do we trust the testimonial account of others? Firstly, I briefly wish to outline the parameters of trust and testimony that Zagzebski refers to in her book Epistemic Authority: A Theory of Trust, Authority, and Autonomy in Belief and then outline the reasons she also rejects the reductionist account, before examining the ways in which she suggests are reasons as to why we trust the testimonial account of others. For Zagzebski, there is an important distinction between asserting that something

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    ss

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    While Estlund proposes a fascinating, and well thought out argument, I have a number of concerns about epistemic proceduralism. First and foremost is my concern with the lack of justification given for the procedures themselves with which Estlund uses as a basis for his justification of epistemic proceduralism. My second concern rests with the limits that Estlund places on his epistemic proceduralist argument. And my third point of contention with Estlund's argument is the reasoning behind minorities

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    ignorance, which systematically supported socially induced patterns of understanding that works to sustain systematic oppression and privilege. Due to this, white people learn the world wrong but this warped perception will in turn be validated by white epistemic authority and white ignorance will feel like knowledge to those who benefit from this system. Mills also makes the clarification that white ignorance does not exclusively focus on overtly racist uneducated individuals but also educated well-meaning

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    it’s more about the feel of it” (Tullmann 78). Since we truly don’t know how to determine our reality over our dreams, it leads to a constant problem, epistemic angst. Tullmann looks at epistemic angst and the responses to it. Epistemic angst is the feeling of anxiety caused by the uncertainty of anything. To see how we would respond to epistemic angst, we need to know how angst is formed. The skeptical argument concluded that Cobb may not know for certain that he has children. Being the main reason

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    The Philosophy of Language

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    order for a belief to be certain knowledge. These factors allow for different contexts to set epistemic standards, and each may vary from the other. Epistemic standards are higher in some contexts, and make it difficult for our beliefs to count as knowledge. Most often, epistemic standards are low, and beliefs count as knowledge. The fundamental claim is that contextualism helps to explain our epistemic perceptions, or judgments. The reason, in most cases, why we claim that we have knowledge, and

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    I wish at this point to propose an alternative take on Estlund's epistemic proceduralist argument that attempts to improve the reliability of the democratic epistemic proceduralist decision making process, and introduce a system by which minorities will be no less the equal to majority groups when it comes to vital decision making. In response to the large hole in Estlund's case that was made with the argument against the procedures being legitimate since many laws passed are bound to be inferior

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    Rationality and Inconsistent Beliefs

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    D., the Ontological Turn, University of Iowa Press, 216-229. Lehrer, Keith. (1990): ‘Reason and Consistency’, in his Metamind, Clarendon Press, 148-166. Pollock, John. (1995) Cognitive Carpentry, MIT Press. Ryan, Sharon. (1996) ‘The Epistemic Virtues of Consistency’, Synthese 109, 121-141.

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    When evaluating inductive risk, it is imperative to evaluate all possible consequences of various solutions before reaching a decision. In Douglas’ article, she argues that “non-epistemic values are a required part of the internal aspects of scientific reasoning for cases where inductive risk includes risk of non-epistemic consequences (Douglas, p. 559). She continues on to explain the foundation for the term inductive risk, and how it came about. “Inductive risk, a term first used by Hempel [in 1965

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