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    A Review of Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China In Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China, Jung Chang asserts that Empress Dowager Cixi was a modernist, liberal leader, albeit a bit flawed, rather than the conservative tyrant she is often illustrated as, stating that Cixi’s reign was the most tolerant in Qing history . Chang does this by citing instances where Cixi’s policies helped China, as well as depicting Cixi as a proficient, hardworking woman

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    Empress Cixi

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    Although there may not be an extremely extensive amount of knowledge about the Empress Dowager Cixi, she is often considered one of the most powerful women in history. She ruled for almost fifty years, maintaining and expanding her own power. During her ‘behind the curtain’ reign, she made all decisions and always had the final say. Though she was very sharp and understood and executed politics well, she was (what some might consider today) corrupt. She was insistent on keeping her power in the Qing

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    Cixi

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    Empress Dowager Cixi was the last Dowager Empress of China to hold power. She entered history on November 29, 1835 as a rather ordinary Chinese girl named Yehenara. However, there was a certain prestige in being born to a family from the ruling Manchu minority. At age sixteen, she was brought to the Forbidden City to join Emperor Xianfeng's harem—which may sound like punishment to modern ears, but was considered a swank role for Chinese women of her time. Cixi had extremely sharp political sense

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    The Fall of the Qing Dynasty

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    million people living in China around the nineteenth century. This spike increased population density, it also created a surplus of labour shortages, land shortages, inadequate food production and several famines. As an attempt for a solution, Empress Dowager Cixi proclaimed a call for proposals for reform from the generals and governors. There were three reform movements between 1860-1911, “ the Qing court and Chinese provincial officials had tried to adapt a wide range of Western techniques and ideas

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    2013 10218

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    of Empress Dowager Cixi, revealed in stories of her assassinating other concubines and royal family members for the desire of autocracy, made her the top three evil women in China’s history. Unfortunately, her achievements are often belittled by her brutality, and she was usually considered negatively by her descendants. Despite Dowager Cixi’s ruthless actions, she was a clever woman who remarked significant change in culture, politics and traditional value of China during her reign. Dowager Cixi

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    Chinese history, which attempted to fundamentally change China’s educational, sociopolitical, cultural and military system. It is also famously known as the Hundred Days Reform as a result of its duration of 103 days, and finally terminated by Empress Dowager Cixi. The leading figures of the reform movement were Kang Youwei and Liangqi Chao. This reform movement has a significant impact in motivating Chinese people’s sense of patriotism and national consciousness. The the failure of the movement is multi-factorial

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    Overview of the Constitutional Practice in the late Qing Dynasty After the Hundred Days Reform and the Boxer Rebellion, the rule of the Qing Dynasty he¬aded by Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) was even more in jeopardy. Nationwide movements against the Qing Dynasty and the Manchu were rapidly escalating. Forced by the circumstances, Cixi made an abrupt change in attitude concerning constitutional reform - in 1901, she succes¬sively issued three imperial edicts in the name of the Qing government,

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    With the conclusion of the Arrow War (1860), China realized that her position was challenged by new forces from the West. Her supreme power was shattered, her material resources were limited and her territories were exposed to foreign aggression. Moreover, China at the same time suffered from government disintegration, financial chaos, corruption, natural disasters and peasant revolts. Some conscientious officials came to realize immediate measures had to be taken to strengthen the country and to

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    The Manchu government’s refusal to open up China to trade with the western powers led to armed invasions by the foreign powers. China did not want any goods from the west as China considered itself as self-sufficient. China regarded trade as a favour China granted to the less fortunate nations. However Britain was very much interested in purchasing Chinese silks, porcelain goods and Chinese tea. Therefore, Britain found a new commodity and this was the sale of opium to China. The illegal trade of

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    After the emancipation of slaves, people who once lived off of slaves needed new laborers due to the excessive need for labor. When the emancipated workers were asked to work for the plantations, many refused. Long distance trade in indentured labor was created. Indentured servitude is when someone is bonded by contract to work for another for a time period in exchange for something. Large amounts of Chinese, Indian, African, and Pacific Islanders became indentured servants with signed contracts

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