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    Alcohol and its Effects

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    Alcohol and its Effects Does the brain control all forms of behavior? Is everything we do, say, think and feel a direct output from nothing but the brain? Is it justifiable to think of the brain as interconnected box within box with inputs and outputs? The focus of this paper is on the input alcohol and how the processes generate a certain type of behavior output. This focus of alcohol input and behavior output will demonstrate that indeed brain is and does equal all forms of behavior. When

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    Addiction is a Disease

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    when the addict “uses” these regions of the brain are stimulated and flooded with massive amounts of dopamine, and serotonin creating an instinctual “reward system”. Unfortunately as the drug raises dopamine to unnaturally high levels the addict finds that the only way to achieve a balance is to continue to use the drug. This changes the hierarchy of important survival needs that release dopamine such as food, water, sex, the mid brain is literally telling the addict they need the drug to survive

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    GHB: Physiological Uses Versus Social Abuses

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    GHB: Physiological Uses Versus Social Abuses The human genome is old news. The next generation of thinkers faces the great challenge of establishing how our physiological condition translates into complex thought and behavior. And there has not been a team of researchers more dedicated to empirically finding the answers to these questions than today's experimental teens. As subjects of their own study, these future scientists have quite thoroughly manipulated their mental and physical states

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    Eating Disorders in Youth and Adults

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    produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology, 47(6), 419 9. Palmiter, R. D. (2007) Is dopamine a physiologically relevant mediator of feeding behaviour? Trends in neuroscience, 30(8), 375-381 10. Schultz, W. (1998). Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. Journal of neurophysiology, 80(1), 1-27 11. Smith, K.S & Berridge K.C (2007) opiod limbic circuit for reward: interaction between hedonic hotspots of nucleus

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    Cocaine is one of the oldest known psychoactive drugs to this day. It is a very addictive substance that directly affects the brain. Although it became very popular in the 80’s cocaine is by no means a ‘new’ drug. The drug itself is made from the leaves of a coca plant which have been consumed for over a thousand years and the purified form of cocaine, which is what you will see more commonly, has been documented in use for over one-hundred years. Ironically, despite its addictive nature cocaine

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    establish tremors in our hands at rest and also impair balance (Lewis 1701). This disease is a degeneration of the substantia nigra which is a dopamine producing neurons. The substantia nigra is part of the midbrain that is responsible for the voluntary movements. This degeneration effects the balance of the dopamine and acetylcholine in the basal ganglia. Dopamine is an inhibiting neurotransmitter which controls our posture, support and voluntary movements where acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter

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    Dopaminergic Theory

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    pathways that transmits dopamine throughout the brain through a number of pathways, with some of the main pathways being the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways (Davis, Charney, Coyle, & Nemeroff, 2002; Koob & Le Moal, 2005; Nestler 2005), which transmit dopamine from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex, respectively. While dopaminergic pathways cover large portions of the brains, the dopaminergic neurons—neurons the produce dopamine—are clustered in only

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    The Coolidge Effect

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    immediately revived and started copulating again. This process was repeated until the male rat nearly died of exhaustion. The rat’s vigor comes from surges of a neurochemical called dopamine. Dopamine was behind the phenomenon of the rat’s mating fatigue. As the rat copulates repeatedly with the same old partner, the amount of dopamine released reduces in the reward circuitry of its brain. But when ...

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    How addiction controls people? Addiction controls people in many ways. Some addictions can even lead to death if not stopped early on. Addiction to any kind of substance or drug is not an easy thing to quit. It is hard to quit because it is not physically hard but also mentally hard to end an addiction. Addiction controls people by making them lose control of their actions and cravings. Also addiction controls people by changing their circadian rhythms which make it hard to stay away from what they

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    Addiction in Adolescents

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    adolescence becoming an addict or exhibiting a drug seeking behavior. Nearly all drugs of abuse increase dopamine release. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in drug abuse and addiction. Dopamine plays a role in reward motivated behaviors, motor control and important hormones. It’s known as the “feel good hormone” which is why people abuse drugs that increase the release of dopamine. Since life is unpredictable, our brains have evolved the ability to remodel themselves in response to our

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    directly into the afflicted areas of the central nervous system (CNS) of PD patients. In both animal models of PD and humans, marginally successful transplants have been performed using adrenal chromaffin cells and fetal neurons. Genetically-altered, dopamine-producing tissues are currently being proposed as an alternative in transplant therapy of PD. As techniques become more refined, such "brain-grafting" may be the panacea for not only PD, but also for other debilitating diseases such as Huntington’s

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    The Neurobiology of Parkinson's Disease

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    activity. These abnormalities are thought to stem from interactions between genetics and the environment. One of these disorders is Parkinson's Disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease which is characterized by a deficit in the neurotransmitter dopamine (NHGRI, 1998). Parkinson's Disease affects more than a million Americans a year and is distributed equally geographically, in both men and women, and between socio-economic classes (PD Web, 1998). Although the probability of developing the disease

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    (Brodie, Figueroa, and Dewey 2003). These results shows that GABA concentration successfully reduces addictive behaviors and intake of addictive substances. Furthermore, GVG might even be used to to treat other diseases like schizophrenia to regulate dopamine levels and help with the symptoms. Summary Psychiatric and neurological disorders stresses the importance of synaptic func- tions and plasticity. With animal and human studies, progress has been made and knowledge about synapse pathology has been

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    Effects of Marijuana

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    receptors is one known as anandamide. Many important brain functions which affect human behavior involve the neurotransmitter dopamine. Serious drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine, interfere with the brain's use of dopamine in manners that can seriously alter an individual's behavior. A drug's ability to affect the neural systems related to dopamine production has now become the defining characteristic of drugs with serious abuse potential. The discovery of a previously unknown

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    Case Study: Parkinson's Disease

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    nervous system, and occurs when the brain cells that are in charge of producing dopamine in the body start to slow down the dopamine making process and/or stop it all together. These dopamine producing cells can be found in a grouping of cells called the substantia nigra, which is found in the mesencephalon, also known as the midbrain. What dopamine does is it sends the electrical signals in the brain between the dopamine producing nerve cells from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum (part of

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    America’s Insatiable Appetite for Cocaine

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    America’s Insatiable Appetite for Cocaine Where does Coca-Cola get its name? Why was it created? In 1886, the Georgia pharmacist, John Pemberton, designed Coca-Cola as a headache remedy and a stimulant. The original beverage contained cocaine and was used both as an intoxicating beverage and a medically useful tonic. The effects of the drink helped make it popular. Only in the early twentieth century was the drug eliminated from the Coca-Cola recipe and replaced with increased amounts of caffeine

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    Anita Mercado Abnormal Psychology Assignment 2: Chapters 2 & 3 Scientists have been focusing on the impact of genes on behavior and the development of psychological disorders. This research has contributed to the understanding of many disorders, specifically substance-related disorders. In the case study of Ellis, a 30-year-old African American male, the seriousness of substance-related disorders is undeniable. Ellis has been crippled by his long history of heroin addiction that has rendered him

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    What's Love Got To Do With It?

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    their pheromone and can attract male dogs over a mile away (5). Also, involved in chemistry are dopamine and norepinephrine, chemical cousins of amphetamines. Dopamine, a neurochemical released by PEA, makes us feel good.(1) A recent study done at Emory University shows that female voles (small rodents) choose their mates in response to dopamine being released in their brains. When injected with dopamine in a male vole's presence, the female will pick him out of a crowd later.

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    2014). The construct and face validity are also generally good, but quite limited given our poor understanding of the fundamental basis of thought and cognition. Dopamine The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia (Steeds et al., 2014, Peleg-Raibstein et al. 2008) attributes

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    proceeding with caring for Parkinson patients, it is important to understand about the disease. A progressive nervous system disorder, Parkinson’s affects the person’s ability to move, speak or write because of the accelerated loss of the brain chemical dopamine. The symptoms begin in most people after the age of 50. Starting with the slight tremor of the hand, sometimes patients undergo complete stiffness. To this very day, there is no prescribed cure for the disease. Medical experts believe that the disease

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