Title IX’s Lasting Effects on Gender Equality in Federally Funded Sports Activities

Title IX’s Lasting Effects on Gender Equality in Federally Funded Sports Activities

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Introduction
American culture places a large emphasis on athletics; including the popular sports football, basketball, and baseball. Many children are encouraged to participate in sports from a young age by their parents. Some parents believe that participation in team athletics instills in their children discipline, teamwork, and the values of hard work and perseverance. Prior to the 1970s, masculinity was a concept ingrained into athletics, and since the 1970s has only slightly subsided. In the early 1970s it became apparent that legislation would be required to further the cause of athletic equality between men and women. In 1972, a series of Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act were passed. One of the most influential portions of this amendment still is Title IX. Title IX states:
“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participating in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal Financial assistance....”(Kuhn, 1977)

Since the passage of Title IX, there have been many more opportunities for both males and females in all aspects of athletics (Preist, 2003). While there has been a large increase in sports participants and opportunities available to young people, there have also been negative effects of the bill. Many drastic changes have occurred to our society and sports in the time since Title IX’s passage. Throughout this transition period, there have been financial, cultural, and social dynamics shifts to all levels of sports.
FINANCIAL IMPACTS
Since 1972, the United States has largely embraced this bill, and many states have extended the changes created by Title IX into recreational sports progra...


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...03). The whole IX yards: The impact of title IX: The good, the bad and the ugly. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 12(2), 27.

Rosenthal, C. S. (2008). Sports Talk: How Gender Shapes Discursive Framing of Title IX. Politics & Gender, 4(01), 65-92. Retrieved March 30, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X08000032

Stevenson, B. (2007). Title IX and the evolution of high school sports. Contemporary Economic Policy, 25(4), 486-505.

Thelin, J. R. (2000). Good Sports? Historical Perspective on the Political Economy of Intercollegiate Athletics in the Era of Title IX, 1972-1997. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(4), 391. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2649145

Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972. (n.d.). Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/titleix.htm

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