Three Types Of Courts Within The American Criminal Justice System Essays

Three Types Of Courts Within The American Criminal Justice System Essays

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There are two types of courts within the American criminal justice system. The first is the federal court system, which Schmalleger (2015) defines as "a three-tiered structure of federal courts comprised of: US District Courts, US Court of Appeals, and the US Supreme Court" (p. 279). The second is the state court system. Many states have at least 3 court levels consisting of trial courts appeal cord into states Supreme Court. To make these courts properly function it takes many participants. Schmalleger (2015) defines the courtroom work group as “The professional Court room actors including judges, prosecutors, attorneys, defense attorneys, public defenders, and others who earn a living serving the Court" (p. 291).
It is a judge’s primary duty ensure justice. A trial judge has the responsibility to safeguard the rights of the accused and the interest of the public (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 292). The judge hold the ultimate Schmallegerity in the courtroom. Judges are elected or appointed public officials. In most jurisdictions judges’ sentence offenders after a verdict is returned. Many states have a chef judge who manages the court systems. This will include hiring staff scheduling court sessions ensuring the adequate training of judges and coordinating activities with other members of the court.
It is the responsibility of the prosecutor to present the state’s case against the defendant. This individual is the primary representative of the people. According to Schmalleger (2015), "prosecutors, with the exception of federal prosecutors and prosecutors in five states, are elected and generally serve four year terms with the possibility of continuing re-election" (p. 294). In many jurisdictions prosecutors supervisor assistant district...


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...leger, 2015, p. 346). This is the opposite of rehabilitation, which seeks to bring about fundamental changes in offenders and their behavior" (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 346- 347).
Other methods of sentencing such as incapacitation and deterrence seek to reduce crime. Schmalleger (2015) defines incapacitation as "The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will commit further crime" (p. 346). This method seeks to protect society from offenders who may cost harm unless prevented. Deterrence "uses criminal sentencing to inhibit criminal behavior through the fear of punishment" (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 347). Specific deterrence seeks to prevent a particular individual from repeating a criminal act. While general deterrence "seeks to prevent future crimes like the ones for which this sentence is been imposed" (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 346- 347)

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