Essay on Theory of Modernity

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Theory of modernity is based on the notion of social progress, it implies that all of society, in whatever era they exist and in what region or were located, are involved in a single, all-consuming, the universal process of the ascent of human society from savagery to civilization.
Culture of modernity is defining the development of European civilization for four centuries. It based on the idea of progress and human values, which are now, cherished every European: a democratic political system, economic freedom, professional excellence, autonomy, civil society and legal state.
The French Revolution - perhaps the most powerful shock of the XVIII century - changed the face of France, giving it a modern character. It profoundly affected the fate of many nations: those who were really affected by it, and those that only from a distance watched the scene.
The French Revolution was born out of a break deep feudal-absolutist system. Shaken by multiple crises, the most obvious was the finance crisis, the royal government unsuccessfully attempted to reform. Discontent nobles encroachment on their ancestral privileges and the decline of political influence, the increasing trend in the years 1787-1788 excitement parliaments - the highest judicial institutions of France, which have traditionally been in opposition to the absolutist regime, people's movements generated by hunger and high cost of living - all this has forced Louis XVI to go to convening the States-General, has not met since 1614.
In early societies, the way people identified themselves was usually tied to which religion they were. National identity and community as a concept did not exist because the idea of established area where different people lived b...

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...f the Enlightenment, but it is also largely determined by political and social processes of the next century.
In place of vertical feudal structures came predominance of horizontal relations based on legal equality and the contractual basis of free people, relationships, constitute the essence of civil society. Vast social significance was exactly what the first time in many centuries of human history all people regardless of their social origin and status were recognized legally equal participants in the public life, having a number of legally recognized rights and freedoms, giving everyone a chance to prove himself as a person endowed with free will, able to answer for their actions and their legal implications.
Formation and development of civil society took several centuries. This process is not completed globally.


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