Theories On Policy Process, Policy Change And Drivers Essay

Theories On Policy Process, Policy Change And Drivers Essay

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(A) Theories on policy process, policy change and drivers
Policy is a set of guidelines for decision making and achieving rational outcomes. According to Anderson (1975) policy is a purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors. Policy can be adopted by any organization or the government and thus be private or public. Public policy is what governments choose to do or not to do (Adie, R. F., & Thomas, P. G. (1982) and is visible to public (Jones, H. (2009).
A.1: Policy process and formulation
A.1.1: Policy process models:
In the political science arena, there is an ongoing debate that, whether policy-making is a linear, rational process or a chaotic procedure dominated by different social, cultural and political forces. To unearth the process various models have been proposed by scientists over the years. All of these models/frameworks for analyzing the policy process mainly focus on the variables that determine the outcome of the process (Whittington & Van Loon, 1996) and activities that are involved in decision making (Adie, & Thomas.1987). Unfortunately, there is confusion whether the theories tend to explain how government actually makes decision or these are the statements of how decision making ought to occur. The six models of policy process are briefly discussed below:
a. Rational/linear model:
According to this model, policy-making is a problem solving process which is rational, balanced, objective & analytical. It presents a series of sequential phases of decision making (Anderson, J. E. 1984):
 A given problem is separated from other problems by comparison
 Clarifies goals for the problem and rank them according to their importance
 Listing of all possible ways to achieve those goals
 Examining ...


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... as a whole must ratify the report of the policy committee. The Government House Leader then seeks delegated authority from Cabinet to approve the bill for introduction in Parliament. The bill, once introduced, must pass through both the House of Commons and the Senate. When both the House of Commons and the Senate have passed the bill in the same form, the bill awaits Royal Assent. Bill becomes an Act after the Royal Assent. When an Act comes into force, the transition from policy to an enforceable law has been completed (Barnes, A. 2012). The bureaucracy applies the legislation and discovers on the basis of feedback from affected groups. Then the recommendations are made to the minister and eventually to cabinet for amendments and the whole process begin again (Adie, & Thomas 1987). A schematic figure bellow shows the policy process in Canada mentioning the stages.

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