Theories Of The Nature Of Reality And Substance Essay

Theories Of The Nature Of Reality And Substance Essay

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In any given era, there are certain problems that are so large that don’t form one single question but form a horizon of different opinions that lead to theories. In this era there are four major theories of the nature of reality and substance: materialism/physicalism, idealism, transcendental idealism and dualism. While neither theory is perfect, the one that best describes the nature of reality and substance is dualism.
The term “Dualism” refers to the point that intellectual developments are in some forms non-physical entities, implying to a conclusion that the mind and body are not identical. Dualism is meticulously correlated with the argument of Rene Descartes, in which he indicates the mind is a thing that thinks and not an extended thing (res cognito). Matter (body) is seen as an extended thing and not a thing that thinks (res extensa). In defining the properties of the mind and matter, Descartes suggest matter is something that can be measured, has dimensions, can be touched, seen, smelt and even tasted. The mind on the other hand is an immaterial, unchanging substance that can’t be seen. Descartes uses argument of divisibility in order to support his theory on there being two substances. “All extended things are divisible, No minds are divisible.” If a limb is cut off, the mind is still present and able to function. There is still some form of consciousness, in which you are able to think, although something has happened to your body therefore supporting evidence for his theory. Descartes also states if two things do not have identical properties, then they couldn 't be the same, inferring that a human bodies separate from their thoughts, and when the body dies the mind still lives.
An issue that Philosophers and scient...


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...es that destroyed entire communities of people. Just because something is conceived to be immeasurable does not falsify its existence
Although dualism can’t necessarily be proven and has some flaws, there is no evidence to disprove this theory. The other theories in which argue for the substance of reality and nature all have greater flaws that don’t properly convey the appropriate amount of evidence to explain the substance of reality and nature. To begin materialism, is a style of philosophical monism which argues that matter is the fundamental substance in nature and that all phenomena, including all mental awareness and sensibility are merely a consequence of our material interactions. This theory lacks the idea of there being a conscious state of mind. If everything is physical and physical only how do, we feel anything and are able to decide right from wrong.

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