There are many branches of psychology. The field of human development is divided into five theory groups. The theory groups are Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Systems, Biological and Behavioral. Each theory group has many contributing theorists. Some theories overlap while others are independent. Often theories are credible whereas others cause skepticism. There are many contributors to the world of psychology with different views and beliefs about human development.
Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential contributors to the field of psychology. Freud was born in 1856, in Moravia. In 1881, Freud received a doctorate in medicine. Freud’s main focus of study was neurology; this led him to begin concentrating his research on nervous disorders. Freud’s research brought him to his psychoanalytical theory. Freud’s theory suggests that an individual’s unconscious processes or thoughts contribute to one’s personality and influences one’s behavior. Freud’s theory included the concept that personality is composed of three elements: the id (pleasure seeker), the ego (deals with reality), and the superego (one’s sense of right and wrong). Freud also believed that human development consisted of five psychosexual stages: the oral stage (birth-18 months), anal stage (18 months-3 years), phallic stage (3-6 years), latency stage (6-12 years), and the genital stage (12 years and up). The theory included the belief that if one wants to develop a healthy personality, one has to complete all five psychosexual stages successfully.
Another great contributor to the Psychodynamic field of psychology is Erik Erickson. Erickson was born in 1902, in Germany. Erickson travelled around Europe and attended t...
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...ps of human development have led to many breakthroughs in psychology. There are many theorists that have contributed to the five theory groups. However, there are also theorists that are considered to be the founders of each group. All of the theories are relative and may help explain human development, including one’s personality or behavior.
Crain, W. (2011). Theories of development: Concepts and applications. (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Craig, G. J., & Dunn, W. L. (2010). Understanding human development. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Mike Wade (October 18, 2005) Theories used in Research General System Theories http://www.istheory.yorku.ca/generalsystemstheory.htm
Walonick, David S. (1993) General Systems Theory. http://www.statpac.org/walonick/systems-theory.htm
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