Theoretical and Methodological Problems Associated With Viewing Media in Terms of Effects

Theoretical and Methodological Problems Associated With Viewing Media in Terms of Effects

Length: 1829 words (5.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

What different kinds of “effects” can the media have, and what are the theoretical and methodological problems associated with viewing media in terms of effects? Discuss in relevance to research.

‘One of the first and most important assumptions of the study of mass communication has been the presumption that media and their content have significant and substantial effects’ (Perse, E.M. 2001: 3). The topical debate and concerns of ‘media effects’ has had a long history. ‘Mass communication could become the basis for people’s view of the world’ (Lippman, 1922)4. This quote demonstrates that in the early 1900s scholars were concerned with media’s dominant ability to influence audiences. As new mediums have come into play, opinions on the matter have rarely changed. ‘Media effects’ refers to how powerful and influential the mass media is upon audiences in society and how this affects individuals patterns of thought and behaviour.
It has been considerably argued that research evidence on the topic of media effects has resulted in concern and more recently research has tended to focus extensively on illustrating how the media can have damaging effects on people. Influence or effects exist when we can notice “a significant causal link between an external factor and a view we have formed or perhaps an action we have undertaken” (Corner, 1999). This demonstrates ‘the direct effects on the audiences behaviour and patterns of thinking’5.

The most commonly researched and written about possible media effects are about the relationship between the media and real life violence, the audiences notion of fear, worry and insecurity arisen from new forms of media, the relationship between the media and sex, socialisation of children, the cre...

... middle of paper ...

... as every method has a disadvantage and may not result in valid results.


1. Cumberbatch, G. (1998) “Media effects: the continuing controversy‟ in Briggs, A. and Cobley, P. (eds) The Media: An Introduction, pp. 262-274.

2. Holland, P. (1997) “Living for libido; or, Childs Play IV” in Barker, M. and Petley, J. (eds.) Ill Effects. The Media and Violence Debate, pp. 41

3. Kitzinger, J. (2002) “Impacts and Influences” in Briggs, A. And Cobley, P. (eds) The Media: An Introduction, pp. 272
4. Perse, E.M. (2001) “The Presumption of Media Effects” in her book Media, Effects and Society, pp. 3

5. Saltzis, K. (2010). “The Study of Media Audiences –Early Perspectives – The Effects Tradition”, from MS1001. University of Leicester, Attenborough Lecture Theatre 3 on February 2nd. Available from: Blackboard [02/02/10]

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Reference of Theoretical Terms Essays

- The Reference of Theoretical Terms ABSTRACT: A popular explanation of the success of theories of science is that of scientific realism. It maintains, besides that the theories of a mature science are typically approximately true, that observational terms and theoretical terms refer to or denote entities. Therefore it is part of the realistic claim that "reference" explains "success." But if the realist is not able to clarify "reference" and a fortiori the reference on theoretical objects, the realist comes to a vicious circle, for there is no further criterion as the success of the theory to show that the term is referential....   [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

Free Essays
1820 words (5.2 pages)

The Important Effects of Theories, Systems, and Paradigms on Psychology Essay

- Psychology is the study of the way people think and behave. The field of psychology has a number of subdisciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior that includes theories, systems, and paradigms. Theories, systems, and paradigms have had an important effect on psychology. A theory is a plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena. A theory can also be explained as an abstract thought or speculation....   [tags: Papers]

Term Papers
529 words (1.5 pages)

Brain Effects Associated with Cinnamon and Peppermint Essay

- Introduction In Middle School, before taking a big test teachers would always hand out peppermint or a piece of gum. The purpose behind this seemed unclear. However, from further research their was interesting facts about peppermint candy and Big Red cinnamon flavored gum. Peppermint candy is made with the oil of peppermint, which is extracted from the peppermint plant. This is why the candy can have some of the same effects as the oil itself. People believe the brain effects associated with peppermint are related to the scent of the peppermint, rather than the ingestion of it....   [tags: correlation between candy and test results]

Term Papers
719 words (2.1 pages)

Essay about Theoretical Framework and Principles

- Introduction In inquiring on theoretical framework to serve as the base for the research and analysis at the core of our dissertation it is crucial to comprehend the construction and the element directing the theory we are adopting for months to come. Stewart, Harte and Sambrook (2010, p223) have determined the relation that the theory plays with the evolution of the research process and its designer “In summary then the concept of theory is inextricably connected to notions of science that, in origin at least, refers to investigating the world according to a set of rules and principles.” Those rules and principles will be the guide and limitations to direct the inquisition once adopted and...   [tags: rules, theory, paradigms, pertient]

Term Papers
1100 words (3.1 pages)

Essay about Theorectical Bases For Counseling

- Five major theoretical bases for counseling in psychology are biological, learning, cognitive, psychodynamic, and sociocultural. Each one of these perspectives searches for answers about behavior through different techniques and researching a clients childhood or adult life experiences looking for answers to different kinds of questions. Due to the different types and styles of counseling approaches, each counselor forms their own thoughts and explanations. The premise behind the biological perspective in psychology is that all actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with different events in a person’s life....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
670 words (1.9 pages)

Developmental Psychology Theoretical Approaches Essay

- Overview Four theoretical approaches to cognitive development Piaget’s theory Information processing theories Core knowledge theories Sociocultural theories (Vygotsky) General Themes Nature and nurture Continuity vs. discontinuity Active vs passive child Nurture (environment, learning) John Locke (1632-1704) –Infant’s mind as “tabula rasa” Behaviorism (e.g. Watson, Skinner) Nurture (environment, learning) 'A child's mind is a blank book. During the first years of his life, much will be written on the pages....   [tags: essays research papers]

Term Papers
770 words (2.2 pages)

Sorting Through the Terms Essay

- Sorting Through the Terms With new technological advances everyday, and variety of features on competing products, it is difficult to decide which make or model of a product to buy. The average consumer is overwhelmed with information provided by the manufacturers and retailers. Digital video cameras are a great example of a product with constantly changing features that often leave potential buyers confused and paying for features they will not use. Terms like Hi-8, stabilizer, mega pixels, or LCD screen size get lost in the mix....   [tags: Technology Electronics Essays]

Free Essays
1529 words (4.4 pages)

Essay about Contractual Terms

- Contractual Terms Works Cited Not Included Contractual terms are statements that form part of a contract. Parties to a contract will normally be bound to perform any promise that they have agreed to, and failure to perform this promises, or a unsatisfactory performance, may lead to an action for breach of contract....   [tags: Papers]

Term Papers
868 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Film Terms

- I. Editing a. Terms i. Scenes are comprised of shots 1. Any movie ii. Editing is the joining of one shot to another 1. Dialogue is the clearest example iii. An establishing shot shows a change in scene 1. American Pie – Showing the outside of Stiffler’s house before going into the party scene iv. A shot is a segment of film 1. Any Movie b. History i. Birth of A Nation was the first film to use extensive editing ii. Who Framed Rodger Rabbit. was the first film to use humans and animation together iii....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
341 words (1 pages)

Essay about Terms

- Mesh, Bus, Ring, and Star are all types of a topology. Each of these types of topology is used for specific network’s but some networks can uses any combination of the four. A mesh topology has each station connected to the others. This network is more difficult to set up but provides a great deal of performance and reliability. In a Mesh network if a segment of the network is broken, then the packet being sent will find an alternate route to its destination. Mesh are used in Wide Area Networks (WANs) where reliability is important, this is used were the network is small....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
667 words (1.9 pages)