General Test Information
The Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers or Praxis is administered through Educational Testing Services and is currently the most popular norm-referenced test being used (Brown, 2008). The Praxis Series tests measures the knowledge of important content and skills required to teach (Educational Testing Service, 2010). Each of the tests reflects what is believed to be important for new teachers as reflected by practitioners across the United States.
The Praxis I covers Academic Skills Assessments, while the Praxis II covers Subject Assessments (Brown, 2008). The tests include both multiple-choice and constructed response (CR) or essay (Sergi, 2001). The Praxis I is used by many institutions as a way of evaluating takers for entrance into teach education programs (ETS, 2010). The Praxis II test is used for initial teacher licensing as well as throughout different stages of a teacher’s career.
Tests consisting of only multiple-choice items are given a raw score based on correct answers on the test (ETS, 2011). No penalty is imposed for incorrect answers. Constructed response only tests are given a raw score from a composite of scores on individual items. Each item is read and scored by two qualified scorers who score according to a rubric and the sum of scores is the raw score for the item. For tests including both question types, raw scores are a weighted composite of raw multiple-choice score and individual constructed response scores.
Although a score earned by a person in one state means the same as a person who takes the same test in another state, passing scores vary from state to state (ETS, 2010). Although Praxis test scores are portable across...
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...el continues at an entry level, states need to look into building structures to ensure teacher’s intellectual growth will happen (Mitchell, Barth, 1999). States should also look into aligning their standards for teachers and raising their passing scores to be more unitary.
However, insufficient reliability or validity evidence exists, besides on test content, to assert the test accurately measures its constructs. After consulting multiple academic databases, including EBSCO and ERIC, there was limited evidence showing validity other than content. When searching on the Burrows Institute for a test review of the Praxis, they noted that reviews are not available because insufficient materials have been provided by ETS. Reviews of the National Teacher Examination were available, which is the test that the Praxis replaced; however, the test changed extensively.
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