Anne Laurence and Rachel. C Gibbons (2007), state that the army was created in 1645, and combined various existing units. The formation of the army was a direct consequence of the Self Denying Ordinance (1643). The function of the army was to provide parliament with a more professional and effective force. With the exclusion of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), there were no peers or MPs within the army, which meant that promotion was achieved by those who deserved it. The National army did not have the same obligations that featured in the previous provincial forces, and had the first claim on funds from parliament.
The Solemn League and Covenant (1643), a settlement from the alliance between Parliament and Scotland, created friction amongst Parliamentarians, and subsequently a division. The two factions that emerged were the Presbyterians and the Independents. Lawrence and Gibbons suggest that, the Presbyterians mainly approved of the alliance with Scotland, and the Independents opposed it. Unorthodox religious forms surfaced and were supported by the army. The lack of censorship, and the ...
... middle of paper ...
.... However, there are limitations with it being a regional representation,and therefore, may not have been indicative on a national level.
In summary, It can be seen that the army directed the political position of Parliamentarians in various ways, and on numerous occasions. They pushed forward strategies, imposed the will of authority, and were highly involved with the trial of the king. Charles I's execution meant that the Kingdom became a Commonwealth. Cromwell's ventures in Spain demonstrate activity within foreign policy, which highlights the impact of the army was not just confined to the three kingdoms. It could be argued that parliament could not control its own army. After Cromwell's death he nominated his son Richard as successor, who was military inexperienced. The monarchy was restored in 1660, when Charles II accepted the Presbyterian settlement.
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