The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

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The Indian pharmaceutical industry has fast growing at the rate of 14 percent per year [Indian brand equality foundation, 2009] and its ranks is very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. A rapid expansion and sophistication of chemical and pharmaceutical industries has increased the amount and complexity of toxic waste effluents. The effective removal of substances included in pharmaceutical effluents is a challenging task due to the wide variety of Chemicals produced biological products ,medicinal chemicals , botanical products in drug manufacturing plants such as analgesic, antibiotics, antidepressants, antidiabetics, contracepes, growth regulators, drugs, painkillers, and tranuilizers (Robinson et al., 2007; Ghauch et al., 2009) which lead to wastewaters of variable compositions into natural systems and consequent degradation of the environment (Mehta, G at al.1995). The effluent generated from these industries is typically toxics, colored, organic and turbid with high suspended solids. This in turn has led to an increase in various kinds of diseases. For example many organic compounds that are recalcitrant in nature are produced while manufacturing pharmaceutical products, while most of them that are poorly degradable are released in effluent. And sometimes formation of N-nitrosamines, a possible carcinogen in stomach another issue of ecological concern is causing of algal blooms or eutrophication in water bodies (Chih-Hsiang Liao et al., 2003). The pharmaceutical effluents were treated by traditional techniques such as flocculation, coagulation, conventional biological treatment, filtration, reverse osmosis, precipitation ,incineration, and triple effect evaporator because of high TDS. In these approaches, the pollutants are transferred from a liquid phase to a solid phase (Takaoka et al., 2007), and also facing corrosion problems. A biological treatment is highly effective for the removal of most contaminants, however biodegradation processes are inherently slow and do not allow for high degrees of removal. The sludge formed during biological treatment has to be disposed either by land filling or burning, which increases considerably the running costs. In addition, sludge disposal may pose further environmental problems.( Noelia Barrabes et al., 2011)
In this sense, catalytic process appears as the most promising technology. Current pharmaceutical industry were practicing triple effect evaporate for treatment of high dissolved solids, in these route high amount of sludge is generated and also high amount of steam required. Now a day the researchers are mainly focus on the eco-friendly and economically viable technologies are much desirable in these days.

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The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

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The present work tackled with degradation of pharmaceutical wastewater through green catalyst route. zerovalent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) have received much recent attention due to their low cost and environmentally benign nature. For example, ZVINs were used in the reductive transformation of nitroaromatics (Bai et al., 2009),organophosphors coumpound( Ghauch et al., 1999), triazines herbicides (Ghauch and Suptil, 2000), carbamates insecticides (Ghauch, 2000;Ghauch et al., 2001), benzimidazoles pesticides (Ghauch, 2001), fluorinated (Ghauch, 2008) nitroamines (Naja et al., 2009), and trichloroethylene (TCE) (Liu et al., 2005;Zhan et al., 2008 ; Wang et al., 2010). However, NZVI tends to agglomerate into large particles due to its high surface energy and intrinsic magnetic interaction, which makes it difficult to be separated and recovered after use (Phenrat et al., 2007 ; Yang et al., 2011). Besides, the surface hydrophobicity of NZVI is poor, so it is not readily accessible by hydrophobic organic contaminants, and leading to the lower removal efficiency. Using support materials to immobilize NZVI is one possible way to solve above-mentioned problems. As reported in the literatures, surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) (Zhang et al., 2002), porous silica (Zheng et al., 2008), resin (Li et al., 2007), poly acrylic acid (Wang et al., 2008) and alginate bead (Kim et al., 2010) Chitosan (Zhu et al., 2006), amorphous silica (Zheng et al., 2008), poly(methylmethacrylate) (Wang et al., 2010), palygorskite (Frost et al., 2010), carboxymethyl cellulose (He et al., 2007), and poly(acrylic acid) (Schrick et al., 2004), have been used to maintain reactivity by preventing aggregation of the nano metal supported on those solids. However, the preparations of those composite materials were complex and the cost was high. To fill that gap an ideal adsorbent should have uniformly accessible pores to ensure high adsorption kinetics, high surface area to provide high density of adsorption sites, and great physical/chemical stability for the ease in operation. Activated carbon cloth/fiber (ACC/ACF), as the third generation of carbonaceous adsorbent, with its high adsorption kinetics and capacity to organic matters, excellent stability to chemicals and high temperature, and great mechanical and physical properties, in sorption media (Brasquet et al. 1999; Le Cloirec et al., 1996).The advantages over then granular activated was 2 to 20 times faster kinetics.(Nicholas., 2002). The activated carbon cloth can serve as a good supporting matrix for iron oxides to remove arsenic from water and simultaneously can contribute to the removal of other coexisting contaminants (Shujuan Zhang et al.,2009).

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