The human foot and ankle are composed of 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than a hundred muscles, tendons and ligaments. These components work together to provide the body with support, balance and mobility. The foot acts as a “rigid lever and mobile adapter” (Amstrong [Prosthetic feet], 2010). The human foot must be capable of withstanding the body’s weight and functions as a shock absorber (Swierzewski, 2007; NYU, 1990). The prosthetic foot needs to be capable of mimicking the missing natural foot, to make for the most efficient gait pattern. When due to disease, accident or developmental malformation a natural foot is absent a prosthetic foot is used to mimic the missing limb in an attempt to create the most efficient gait pattern. The prosthetist must choose from numerous types of prosthetic feet, depending upon the patient’s physical condition and life-style needs (Swierzewski, 2007).
The human gait cycle is comprised of multiple sequential steps. It begins with the heel of the foot contacting the ground and ends when that same foot contacts the ground again (Perry, 1992). The period of the gait cycle that the foot is on the ground is called the stance phase. The period when the foot is in the air is called the swing phase. The phases of the gait cycle are initial contact (IC), loading response (LR), mid-stance (MSt), terminal stance (TSt), pre-swing (PSw), initial swing (ISw), mid-swing (MSw) and terminal swing (TSw). There are three primary functions of the gait cycle, which are weight acceptance, single limb support, and limb advancement. Weight acceptance occurs during initial contact and loading response. During these phases, the limb is stabilized to prevent falling and the foot fun...
... middle of paper ...
...activities. The main disadvantage of this foot is that it costs more than other feet, and can only be used by patients at the K3 level or above (Lusardi & Nielsen, 2007).
There are several different manufactures of prosthetic feet such as Ossur, Ottobock, Ohio Willow Wood, and SPS. Most companies specialize in adult feet though there are some manufactures such as Ossur that have a special pediatric line. On the companies’ websites, feet are organized based on K level and further categorized based upon male or female. Prosthetic feet come in different lengths in centimeters and left or right. They also are grouped by weight of the patient that can safely use the foot. Some feet come in different skin colors and others have a space between the big toe and second toe to accommodate the user who wants to wear flip-flops or shoes with toe straps.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Homo Naledi, a new species of human ancestry, was found thirty meters underground in a cave system in South Africa. The word Naledi means star in the South African language of Sotho. When researchers find a new link in our human evolution it is common to think that this discovery will overturn all past assumptions and become the new norm. More research will be needed to see if that is the case of Homo Naledi. Famous researcher and paleoanthropologist Lee Berges received information that some cave explorers had been exploring the limestone tunnels of the Rising Star Cave outside Johannesburg South Africa.... [tags: Human, Human evolution, Scientific method]
2099 words (6 pages)
- Despite the immeasurable quantities of animal species dominating the globe, humans exist as a uniquely remarkable class. Their physical and biological morphology is the result of their intricate interactions with surrounding environments, which have occurred over several millennia. Our fellow primates have experienced similarly natured interactions, yet remain a vastly different species. Humans possess biological, cognitive, and cultural characteristics that can be attributed to no other entities – not even chimpanzees, whom we differ in less than 1% of our genetic composition.... [tags: Human, Human evolution, Australopithecus, Primate]
1016 words (2.9 pages)
- I. Modern world, that when one is hungry, they can just easily walk to the food store or drive to the nearest Wendy’s. Now imagine waking up everyday having to hunt for your food. II. The Tarahumara Indian tribe, in the Mexican Copper Canyon, is known to hunt in distances superseding a marathon distance in order to capture and provide food for their families. (Mcdougall,2009) III. Audience Interest: Before the invention of hunting bows about 200,000 years ago, early humans hunt with stone tipped spears, although they will not go against toe to toe against a carnivore, so they use a technique called persistent hunting.... [tags: hunting, running, foraging techniques]
1356 words (3.9 pages)
- ... Another difference between the circulatory system of minks and humans is the names of veins. In humans the superior and inferior vena cava is known as the cranial and caudal vena cava in minks. The respiratory system of minks and humans share the same function which is the gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide. The lungs are very similar in that of texture which is smooth, color which is a dark reddish color and size in which that is covers most of the upper chest region. Although humans are again larger organisms their lungs are significantly larger than a minks.... [tags: features, similarities]
2433 words (7 pages)
- Ankle sprains is something that we see a lot of being in athletic training so I figured there would be a lot of research in this area to get an athlete where the taping or bracing would be the most beneficial to them. Even though we don’t have football in Casper and we don’t have a sport where spatting is necessary it might be helpful in the future. Even now seeing the statistics of the different types of taping and bracing is interesting. I also chose this topic because in the taping and intro classes we didn’t really talk about spatting because we don’t have any sports dealing with this and it is just like a regular ankle tape, but it is over the shoe so the extra information would be usef... [tags: American football, Football, Tape, Foot]
942 words (2.7 pages)
- Dance is to move the body in a way that goes with the rhythm and style of music that is being played, or to perform: A beautiful art form, a fluid morsel of perfection demonstrated by statues hand crafted flawlessly seen all over the world. This sport is not one that can be achieved by anyone, it requires vast amounts of talent and practice. As a recreational activity, dance has both a positive and a negative effect on the human body and mind. My whole life I have heard it said that dancers are not athletes; this statement has been proven wrong.... [tags: athletism, Pirouettes, spins]
1077 words (3.1 pages)
- Ankle foot orthoses (AFO’s) and foot orthoses have been used frequently to help children with Cerebral Palsy gait patterns. The use of ankle foot orthoses and foot orthoses help improve alignment of the foot, help with balance, and prevent deformity (331). When wearing ankle foot orthroses, it helps prevent toe walking, decreases gastrocnemius activity, and prevents equinus because it blocks plantar flexion past ninety degrees (331). There are three case studies of three children with Cerebral palsy.... [tags: health, cerebral palsy]
1066 words (3 pages)
- Human interaction at its basest can be described as a clash of wills. Different parties with different agendas come together, each hoping to get what they want with as little effort or cost as possible. Everyone wants something for as close to nothing as they can get. This was the impetus for the exploration of the foot-in-the-door technique. The foot-in-the-door technique, also called the gradation technique, refers to the assumption that a person who has already complied with a small request is more likely to agree to a larger one later.... [tags: HUman Interaction, Experiments]
1185 words (3.4 pages)
- Fahmi Alhayani June 12, 2016 Research Paper- Homo Naledi Arguably the most remarkable thing about Homo naledi is how and where it was found. Back in 2013, two eagle-eyed cavers spotted human remains in a remote cavern deep inside the Rising Star cave system, just outside of Johannesburg, South Africa. The chamber, dubbed the Denaledi Chamber ("chamber of stars"), is about 30 meters below the surface and accessible only via more than 80 meters of often extremely narrow passages. Berger himself was too large to access the fossils, so he gathered a team of scientists small and limber enough to make the arduous descent.... [tags: Human, Human evolution, Australopithecus]
1210 words (3.5 pages)
- 2 Foot binding is one of the cultures in China, signifying beauty and torture. Also, signifies that a girl had achieved womanhood. Men think that foot binding is a physical attractive in a woman. Foot binding may be a torture for women, but is part of the culture, and they had to respect the culture, otherwise they will be considered unmarriageable and become concubines or servants. Foot binding was motivated in the 10th centuries by a ballet dancer named Yao Niang, who bound her feet in a new moon shape to perform a dance to the emperor Li Yu.... [tags: Family, Marriage, Love, Foot]
1152 words (3.3 pages)