First of all, when a child-bearing woman is using drugs, the substances are being transferred to the foetus through the umbilical cord (Bashmore, Ketchum, Staisch, Barrett, & Zimmermann, 1981). As a consequence, the foetus experiences the same physical symptoms as its mother, such as blood intoxication and spasms (Bashmore et al, 1981; Kreek, Nielsen, Butelmann, & LaForge, 2005). Substance abuse during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion, heart defects and low birth weight (Bashmore et al., 1981), as well as behavioral problems and addiction proneness for the offspring (Bashmore et al., 1981; Jêdrzejczak, 2005). More specifically, substance abuse during pregnancy can elicit a series of chemical reactions in the developing brain of the foetus (Kreek et al., 2005). As a result, in the future life of the offspring, an environmental or a psychological stimulus may be enough to lead to substance abuse (Kreek et al., 2005).
The experiences an individual has during his or her childhood are considered equally important prognosticators for using drugs. Witnessing a parent or a caretaker abusing substances is considered as an ...
... middle of paper ...
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Spooner, C. (1999). Causes and correlates of adolescent drug abuse and implications for treatment. Drug and Alcohol Review, 18(4), 453-475. doi:10.1080/09595239996329
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